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Validating Force Sensitive Resistor Strip Sensors for Cardiorespiratory Measurement during Sleep: A Preliminary Study

  • Sleep disorders can impact daily life, affecting physical, emotional, and cognitive well-being. Due to the time-consuming, highly obtrusive, and expensive nature of using the standard approaches such as polysomnography, it is of great interest to develop a noninvasive and unobtrusive in-home sleep monitoring system that can reliably and accurately measure cardiorespiratory parameters while causing minimal discomfort to the user’s sleep. We developed a low-cost Out of Center Sleep Testing (OCST) system with low complexity to measure cardiorespiratory parameters. We tested and validated two force-sensitive resistor strip sensors under the bed mattress covering the thoracic and abdominal regions. Twenty subjects were recruited, including 12 males and 8 females. The ballistocardiogram signal was processed using the 4th smooth level of the discrete wavelet transform and the 2nd order of the Butterworth bandpass filter to measure the heart rate and respiration rate, respectively. We reached a total error (concerning the reference sensors) of 3.24 beats per minute and 2.32 rates for heart rate and respiration rate, respectively. For males and females, heart rate errors were 3.47 and 2.68, and respiration rate errors were 2.32 and 2.33, respectively. We developed and verified the reliability and applicability of the system. It showed a minor dependency on sleeping positions, one of the major cumbersome sleep measurements. We identified the sensor under the thoracic region as the optimal configuration for cardiorespiratory measurement. Although testing the system with healthy subjects and regular patterns of cardiorespiratory parameters showed promising results, further investigation is required with the bandwidth frequency and validation of the system with larger groups of subjects, including patients.

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Author:Mostafa HaghiORCiD, Akhmadbek AsadovORCiD, Andrei BoikoORCiD, Juan Antonio OrtegaORCiD, Natividad Martínez MadridORCiD, Ralf SeepoldORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):Sensors / Special Issue: Sensors in Sleep Monitoring
Place of publication:Basel, CH
Document Type:Article
Year of Publication:2023
Release Date:2023/04/14
Tag:Ballistocardiography; Sleep monitoring; Wavelet signal processing; Heart rate; Respiration rate
Page Number:16
Article Number:3973
Corresponding author: Mostafa Haghi
Institutes:Institut für Angewandte Forschung - IAF
Open Access?:Ja
Relevance:Peer reviewed Publikation in Master Journal List
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International