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Flatness-based feed-forward control of solenoid actuators is considered. For precise motion planning and accurate steering of conventional solenoids, eddy currents cannot be neglected. The system of ordinary differential equations including eddy currents, that describes the nonlinear dynamics of such actuators, is not differentially flat. Thus, a distributed parameter approach based on a diffusion equation is considered, that enables the parametrization of the eddy current by the armature position and its time derivatives. In order to design the feedforward control, the distributed parameter model of the eddy current subsystem is combined with a typical nonlinear lumped parameter model for the electrical and mechanical subsystems of the solenoid. The control design and its application are illustrated by numerical and practical results for an industrial solenoid actuator.

Extracting suitable features from acquired data to accurately depict the current health state of a system is crucial in data driven condition monitoring and prediction. Usually, analogue sensor data is sampled at rates far exceeding the Nyquist-rate containing substantial amounts of redundancies and noise, imposing high computational loads due to the subsequent and necessary feature processing chain (generation, dimensionality reduction, rating and selection). To overcome these problems, Compressed Sensing can be used to sample directly to a compressed space, provided the signal at hand and the employed compression/measurement system meet certain criteria. Theory states, that during this compression step enough information is conserved, such that a reconstruction of the original signal is possible with high probability. The proposed approach however does not rely on reconstructed data for condition monitoring purposes, but uses directly the compressed signal representation as feature vector. It is hence assumed that enough information is conveyed by the compression for condition monitoring purposes. To fuse the compressed coefficients into one health index that can be used as input for remaining useful life prediction algorithms and is limited to a reasonable range between 1 and 0, a logistic regression approach is used. Run-to-failure data of three translational electromagnetic actuators is used to demonstrate the health index generation procedure. A comparison to the time domain ground truth signals obtained from Nyquist sampled coil current measurements shows reasonable agreement. I.e. underlying wear-out phenomena can be reproduced by the proposed approach enabling further investigation of the application of prognostic methods.

This paper presents a new likelihood-based partitioning method of the measurement set for the extended object probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter framework. Recent work has mostly relied on heuristic partitioning methods that cluster the measurement data based on a distance measure between the single measurements. This can lead to poor filter performance if the tracked extended objects are closely spaced. The proposed method called Stochastic Partitioning (StP) is based on sampling methods and was inspired by a former work of Granström et. al. In this work, the StP method is applied to a Gaussian inverse Wishart (GIW) PHD filter and compared to a second filter implementation that uses the heuristic Distance Partitioning (DP) method. The performance is evaluated in Monte Carlo simulations in a scenario where two objects approach each other. It is shown that the sampling based StP method leads to an improved filter performance compared to DP.

In this paper, the problem of controlling the dissolved oxygen level (DO) during an aerobic fermentation is considered. The proposed approach deals with three major difficulties in respect to the nonlinear dynamics of the DO, the poor accuracy of the empirical models for the oxygen consumption rate and the fact that only sampled measurements are available on-line. A nonlinear integral high-gain control law including a continuous-discrete time observer is designed to keep the DO in the neighborhood of a set point value without any knowledge on the dissolved oxygen consumption rate. The local stability of the control algorithm is proved using Lyapunov tools. The performance of the control scheme is first analyzed in simulation and then experimentally evaluated during a successfull fermentation of the bacteria over a period of three days. Pseudomonas putida mt-2

Standardmäßig werden zur Modellierung magnetischer Systeme für regelungstechnische Anwendungen oder im Bereich der Diagnose und Prognose konzentriert parametrische Modelle verwendet. Falls eine hohe Qualität der Prozessabbildung erforderlich ist, z.B. um Wirbelströme oder Sättigung geeignet zu berücksichtigen, nehmen diese Modelle schnell relativ hohe Ordnungen an. Es ist seit einiger Zeit bekannt, dass verteilparametrische Systeme, die z.B. (Feld-)Diffusionsprozesse beinhalten, durch niederdimensionale Modelle mit nicht ganzzahligen Ableitungen, so genannte fraktionale Modelle, sehr gut abgebildet werden können. Im Bereich der magnetischen Aktuatoren wurden diese vor rund 10 Jahren zum ersten Mal untersucht. Seitdem wird auf diesem Gebiet in verschiedenen Arbeitsgruppen geforscht. Während im Frequenzbereich die Handhabung fraktionaler Systeme einfach ist, sind Anwendungen im Zeitbereich bisher insbesondere bei zeitkritischen Anwendungen kaum anzutreffen. Der Beitrag stellt die prinzipielle Idee dar und zeigt Möglichkeiten zum Einsatz dieser Verfahren im Bereich magnetischer Aktoren auf. In einer konkreten Anwendung wird in Simulation und Experiment demonstriert, wie mit Hilfe dieser Modelle Zustandsschätzung in Magnetaktuatoren erfolgen kann und welche Vorteile sich dadurch ergeben.

In extended object tracking, a target is capable to generate more than one measurement per scan. Assuming the target being of elliptical shape and given a point cloud of measurements, the Random Matrix Framework can be applied to concurrently estimate the target’s dynamic state and extension. If the point cloud contains also clutter measurements or origins from more than one target, the data association problem has to be solved as well. However, the well-known joint probabilistic data association method assumes that a target can generate at most one detection. In this article, this constraint is relaxed, and a multi-detection version of the joint integrated probabilistic data association is proposed. The data association method is then combined with the Random Matrix framework to track targets with elliptical shape. The final filter is evaluated in the context of tracking smaller vessels using a high resolution radar sensor. The performance of the filter is shown in simulation and in several experiments.

One major realm of Condition Based Maintenance is finding features that reflect the current health state of the asset or component under observation. Most of the existing approaches are accompanied with high computational costs during the different feature processing phases making them infeasible in a real-world scenario. In this paper a feature generation method is evaluated compensating for two problems: (1) storing and handling large amounts of data and (2) computational complexity. Both aforementioned problems are existent e.g. when electromagnetic solenoids are artificially aged and health indicators have to be extracted or when multiple identical solenoids have to be monitored. To overcome those problems, Compressed Sensing (CS), a new research field that keeps constantly emerging into new applications, is employed. CS is a data compression technique allowing original signal reconstruction with far fewer samples than Shannon-Nyquist dictates, when some criteria are met. By applying this method to measured solenoid coil current, raw data vectors can be reduced to a way smaller set of samples that yet contain enough information for proper reconstruction. The obtained CS vector is also assumed to contain enough relevant information about solenoid degradation and faults, allowing CS samples to be used as input to fault detection or remaining useful life estimation routines. The paper gives some results demonstrating compression and reconstruction of coil current measurements and outlines the application of CS samples as condition monitoring data by determining deterioration and fault related features. Nevertheless, some unresolved issues regarding information loss during the compression stage, the design of the compression method itself and its influence on diagnostic/prognostic methods exist.

Observer-based self sensing for digital (on–off) single-coil solenoid valves is investigated. Self sensing refers to the case where merely the driving signals used to energize the actuator (voltage and coil current) are available to obtain estimates of both the position and velocity. A novel observer approach for estimating the position and velocity from the driving signals is presented, where the dynamics of the mechanical subsystem can be neglected in the model. Both the effect of eddy currents and saturation effects are taken into account in the observer model. Practical experimental results are shown and the new method is compared with a full-order sliding mode observer.

Sensorlose Positionsregelung eines hydraulischen Proportional-Wegeventils mittels Signalinjektion
(2017)

Es wird eine Methode zur sensorlosen Positionsbestimmung bei elektromagnetisch betätigten Aktoren vorgestellt. Dabei werden basierend auf einer Signalinjektion die positionsabhängigen Parameter bei der injizierten Frequenz bestimmt und daraus über ein geeignetes Modell die Position des Magnetankers ermittelt. Die Eignung des Verfahrens zur sensorlosen Positionsregelung wird an einem bidirektionalen Proportionalventil anhand praktischer Versuche demonstriert.