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SInCom 2015
(2015)

Intercultural management
(2016)

A case-based examination of issues in international management that helps students explore theory in the context of real-life practical situations. A focus on skills-development prepares students for future careers in international management. Cases are from a range of countries including central and Eastern Europe as well as the Asian economies.

Fast and reliable acquisition of truth data for document analysis using cyclic suggest algorithms
(2019)

In document analysis the availability of ground truth data plays a crucial role for the success of a project. This is even more true at the rise of new deep learning methods which heavily rely on the availability of training data. But even for traditional, hand crafted algorithms that are not trained on data, reliable test data is important for the improvement and evaluation of the methods. Because ground truth acquisition is expensive and time consuming, semi-automatic methods are introduced which make use of suggestions coming from document analysis systems. The interaction between the human operator and the automatic analysis algorithms is the key to speed up the process while improving the quality of the data. The final confirmation of data may always be done by the human operator. This paper demonstrates a use case for acquisition of truth data in a mail processing system. It shows why a new, extended view on truth data is necessary in development and engineering of such systems. An overview over the tool and the data handling is given, the advantages in the workflow are shown, and consequences for the construction of analysis algorithms are discussed. It can be shown that the interplay between suggest algorithms and human operator leads to very fast truth data capturing. The surprising finding is the fact that if multiple suggest algorithms circularly depend on data, they are especially effective in terms of speed and accuracy.

Vortrag auf dem Doktorandenkolloquium des Kooperativen Promotionskollegs der HTWG, 09.07.2015

Further applications of the Cauchon algorithm to rank determination and bidiagonal factorization
(2018)

For a class of matrices connected with Cauchon diagrams, Cauchon matrices, and the Cauchon algorithm, a method for determining the rank, and for checking a set of consecutive row (or column) vectors for linear independence is presented. Cauchon diagrams are also linked to the elementary bidiagonal factorization of a matrix and to certain types of rank conditions associated with submatrices called descending rank conditions.

A real matrix is called totally nonnegative if all of its minors are nonnegative. In this paper the extended Perron complement of a principal submatrix in a matrix A is investigated. In extension of known results it is shown that if A is irreducible and totally nonnegative and the principal submatrix consists of some specified consecutive rows then the extended Perron complement is totally nonnegative. Also inequalities between minors of the extended Perron complement and the Schur complement are presented.

In this paper totally nonnegative (positive) matrices are considered which are matrices having all their minors nonnegative (positve); the almost totally positive matrices form a class between the totally nonnegative matrices and the totally positive ones. An efficient determinantal test based on the Cauchon algorithm for checking a given matrix for falling in one of these three classes of matrices is applied to matrices which are related to roots of polynomials and poles of rational functions, specifically the Hankel matrix associated with the Laurent series at infinity of a rational function and matrices of Hurwitz type associated with polynomials. In both cases it is concluded from properties of one or two finite sections of the infinite matrix that the infinite matrix itself has these or related properties. Then the results are applied to derive a sufficient condition for the Hurwitz stability of an interval family of polynomials. Finally, interval problems for a subclass of the rational functions, viz. R-functions, are investigated. These problems include invariance of exclusively positive poles and exclusively negative roots in the presence of variation of the coefficients of the polynomials within given intervals.

We consider classes of (Formula presented.)-by-(Formula presented.) sign regular matrices, i.e. of matrices with the property that all their minors of fixed order (Formula presented.) have one specified sign or are allowed also to vanish, (Formula presented.). If the sign is nonpositive for all (Formula presented.), such a matrix is called totally nonpositive. The application of the Cauchon algorithm to nonsingular totally nonpositive matrices is investigated and a new determinantal test for these matrices is derived. Also matrix intervals with respect to the checkerboard ordering are considered. This order is obtained from the usual entry-wise ordering on the set of the (Formula presented.)-by-(Formula presented.) matrices by reversing the inequality sign for each entry in a checkerboard fashion. For some classes of sign regular matrices, it is shown that if the two bound matrices of such a matrix interval are both in the same class then all matrices lying between these two bound matrices are in the same class, too.

A real matrix is called totally nonnegative if all of its minors are nonnegative. In this paper, the minors are determined from which the maximum allowable entry perturbation of a totally nonnegative matrix can be found, such that the perturbed matrix remains totally nonnegative. Also, the total nonnegativity of the first and second subdirect sum of two totally nonnegative matrices is considered.

In 1970, B.A. Asner, Jr., proved that for a real quasi-stable polynomial, i.e., a polynomial whose zeros lie in the closed left half-plane of the complex plane, its finite Hurwitz matrix is totally nonnegative, i.e., all its minors are nonnegative, and that the converse statement is not true. In this work, we explain this phenomenon in detail, and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a real polynomial to have a totally nonnegative finite Hurwitz matrix.

This work investigates data compression algorithms for applications in non-volatile flash memories. The main goal of the data compression is to minimize the amount of user data such that the redundancy of the error correction coding can be increased and the reliability of the error correction can be improved. A compression algorithm is proposed that combines a modified move-to-front algorithm with Huffman coding. The proposed data compression algorithm has low complexity, but provides a compression gain comparable to the Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm.

Model Order Reduction
(2015)

This chapter offers an introduction to Model Order Reduction (MOR). It gives an overview on the methods that are mostly used. It also describes the main concepts behind the methods and the properties that are aimed to be preserved. The sections are in a prefered order for reading, but can be read independentlty. Section 4.1, written by Michael Striebel, E. Jan W. ter Maten, Kasra Mohaghegh and Roland Pulch, overviews the basic material for MOR and its use in circuit simulation. Issues like Stability, Passivity, Structure preservation, Realizability are discussed. Projection based MOR methods include Krylov-space methods (like PRIMA and SPRIM) and POD-methods. Truncation based MOR includes Balanced Truncation, Poor Man’s TBR and Modal Truncation.Section 4.2, written by Joost Rommes and Nelson Martins, focuses on Modal Truncation. Here eigenvalues are the starting point. The eigenvalue problems related to large-scale dynamical systems are usually too large to be solved completely. The algorithms described in this section are efficient and effective methods for the computation of a few specific dominant eigenvalues of these large-scale systems. It is shown how these algorithms can be used for computing reduced-order models with modal approximation and Krylov-based methods.Section 4.3, written by Maryam Saadvandi and Joost Rommes, concerns passivity preserving model order reduction using the spectral zero method. It detailedly discusses two algorithms, one by Antoulas and one by Sorenson. These two approaches are based on a projection method by selecting spectral zeros of the original transfer function to produce a reduced transfer function that has the specified roots as its spectral zeros. The reduced model preserves passivity.Section 4.4, written by Roxana Ionutiu, Joost Rommes and Athanasios C. Antoulas, refines the spectral zero MOR method to dominant spectral zeros. The new model reduction method for circuit simulation preserves passivity by interpolating dominant spectral zeros. These are computed as poles of an associated Hamiltonian system, using an iterative solver: the subspace accelerated dominant pole algorithm (SADPA). Based on a dominance criterion, SADPA finds relevant spectral zeros and the associated invariant subspaces, which are used to construct the passivity preserving projection. RLC netlist equivalents for the reduced models are provided.Section 4.5, written by Roxana Ionutiu and Joost Rommes, deals with synthesis of a reduced model: reformulate it as a netlist for a circuit. A framework for model reduction and synthesis is presented, which greatly enlarges the options for the re-use of reduced order models in circuit simulation by simulators of choice. Especially when model reduction exploits structure preservation, we show that using the model as a current-driven element is possible, and allows for synthesis without controlled sources. Two synthesis techniques are considered: (1) by means of realizing the reduced transfer function into a netlist and (2) by unstamping the reduced system matrices into a circuit representation. The presented framework serves as a basis for reduction of large parasitic R/RC/RCL networks.

In this paper, a gain-scheduled nonlinear control structure is proposed for a surface vessel, which takes advantage of extended linearisation techniques. Thereby, an accurate tracking of desired trajectories can be guaranteed that contributes to a safe and reliable water transport. The PI state feedback control is extended by a feedforward control based on an inverse system model. To achieve an accurate trajectory tracking, however, an observer-based disturbance compensation is necessary: external disturbances by cross currents or wind forces in lateral direction and wave-induced measurement disturbances are estimated by a nonlinear observer and used for a compensation. The efficiency and the achieved tracking performance are shown by simulation results using a validated model of the ship Korona at the HTWG Konstanz, Germany. Here, both tracking behaviour and rejection of disturbance forces in lateral direction are considered.

LEGIC Identsystems Ltd
(2017)

In the field of autonomously driving vehicles the environment perception containing dynamic objects like other road users is essential. Especially, detecting other vehicles in the road traffic using sensor data is of utmost importance. As the sensor data and the applied system model for the objects of interest are noise corrupted, a filter algorithm must be used to track moving objects. Using LIDAR sensors one object gives rise to more than one measurement per time step and is therefore called extended object. This allows to jointly estimate the objects, position, as well as its orientation, extension and shape. Estimating an arbitrary shaped object comes with a higher computational effort than estimating the shape of an object that can be approximated using a basic geometrical shape like an ellipse or a rectangle. In the case of a vehicle, assuming a rectangular shape is an accurate assumption.
A recently developed approach models the contour of a vehicle as periodic B-spline function. This representation is an easy to use tool, as the contour can be specified by some basis points in Cartesian coordinates. Also rotating, scaling and moving the contour is easy to handle using a spline contour. This contour model can be used to develop a measurement model for extended objects, that can be integrated into a tracking filter. Another approach modeling the shape of a vehicle is the so-called bounding box that represents the shape as rectangle.
In this thesis the basics of single, multi and extended object tracking, as well as the basics of B-spline functions are addressed. Afterwards, the spline measurement model is established in detail and integrated into an extended Kalman filter to track a single extended object. An implementation of the resulting algorithm is compared with the rectangular shape estimator. The implementation of the rectangular shape estimator is provided. The comparison is done using long-term considerations with Monte Carlo simulations and by analyzing the results of a single run. Therefore, both algorithms are applied to the same measurements. The measurements are generated using an artificial LIDAR sensor in a simulation environment.
In a real-world tracking scenario detecting several extended objects and measurements that do not originate from a real object, named clutter measurements, is possible. Also, the sudden appearance and disappearance of an object is possible. A filter framework investigated in recent years that can handle tracking multiple objects in a cluttered environment is a random finite set based approach. The idea of random finite sets and its use in a tracking filter is recapped in this thesis. Afterwards, the spline measurement model is included in a multi extended object tracking framework. An implementation of the resulting filter is investigated in a long-term consideration using Monte Carlo simulations and by analyzing the results of a single run. The multi extended object filter is also applied to artificial LIDAR measurements generated in a simulation environment.
The results of comparing the spline based and rectangular based extended object trackers show a more stable performance of the spline extended object tracker. Also, some problems that have to be addressed in future works are discussed. The investigation of the resulting multi extended object tracker shows a successful integration of the spline measurement model in a multi extended object tracker. Also, with these results some problems remain, that have to be solved in future works.

Towards an integrated theory of economic governance – Conclusions from the governance of ethics
(2004)

Industrial growth and a rapidly growing world population have large impacts on the global environment and allocation of material resources. Most changes in the environment are brought about by human activities and these activities result in a flow of materials. The flows of resources from the natural environment to the economy are a prerequisite of production while flows of residuals from the economy to the environment are the consequence of production and consumption. A full understanding of these processes requires a complete description of the physical dimension of the economy and its interaction with the environment.

Path planning and collision avoidance for safe autonomous vessel navigation in dynamic environments
(2017)

The improvement of collision avoidance for vessels in close range encounter situations is an important topic for maritime traffic safety. Typical approaches generate evasive trajectories or optimise the trajectories of all involved vessels. Such a collision avoidance system has to produce evasive manoeuvres that do not confuse other navigators. To achieve this behaviour, a probabilistic obstacle handling based on information from a radar sensor with target tracking, that considers measurement and tracking uncertainties is proposed. A grid based path search algorithm, that takes the information from the probabilistic obstacle handling into account, is then used to generate evasive trajectories. The proposed algorithms have been tested and verified in a simulated environment for inland waters.

Motion safety for vessels
(2015)

The improvement of collision avoidance for vessels in close range encounter situations is an important topic for maritime traffic safety. Typical approaches generate evasive trajectories or optimise the trajectories of all involved vessels. The idea of this work is to validate these trajectories related to guaranteed motion safety, which means that it is not sufficient for a trajectory to be collision-free, but it must additionally ensure that an evasive manoeuvre is performable at any time. An approach using the distance and the evolution of the distance to the other vessels is proposed. The concept of Inevitable Collision States (ICS) is adopted to identify the states for which no evasive manoeuvre exist. Furthermore, it is implemented into a collision avoidance system for recreational crafts to demonstrate the performance.