## Institut für Systemdynamik - ISD

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- Conference Proceeding (47)
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#### Keywords

- 360-degree coverage (1)
- 3D Extended Object Tracking (EOT) (2)
- Actuators (2)
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- Automated Docking of Vessels (1)
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#### Institute

Code-based cryptosystems are promising candidates for post-quantum cryptography. Recently, generalized concatenated codes over Gaussian and Eisenstein integers were proposed for those systems. For a channel model with errors of restricted weight, those q-ary codes lead to high error correction capabilities. Hence, these codes achieve high work factors for information set decoding attacks. In this work, we adapt this concept to codes for the weight-one error channel, i.e., a binary channel model where at most one bit-error occurs in each block of m bits. We also propose a low complexity decoding algorithm for the proposed codes. Compared to codes over Gaussian and Eisenstein integers, these codes achieve higher minimum Hamming distances for the dual codes of the inner component codes. This property increases the work factor for a structural attack on concatenated codes leading to higher overall security. For comparable security, the key size for the proposed code construction is significantly smaller than for the classic McEliece scheme based on Goppa codes.

Nowadays, most digital modulation schemes are based on conventional signal constellations that have no algebraic group, ring, or field properties, e.g. square quadrature-amplitude modulation constellations. Signal constellations with algebraic structure can enhance the system performance. For instance, multidimensional signal constellations based on dense lattices can achieve performance gains due to the dense packing. The algebraic structure enables low-complexity decoding and detection schemes. In this work, signal constellations with algebraic properties and their application in spatial modulation transmission schemes are investigated. Several design approaches of two- and four-dimensional signal constellations based on Gaussian, Eisenstein, and Hurwitz integers are shown. Detection algorithms with reduced complexity are proposed. It is shown, that the proposed Eisenstein and Hurwitz constellations combined with the proposed suboptimal detection can outperform conventional two-dimensional constellations with ML detection.

Virtual measurement models (VMM) can be used to generate artificial measurements and emulate complex sensor models such as Lidar. The input of the VMM is an estimation and the output is the set of measurements this estimation would cause. A Kalman filter with extension estimation based on random matrices is used to filter mean and covariance of the real measurements. If these match the mean and covariance of the artificial measurements, then the given estimation is appropriate. The optimal input of the VMM is found using an adaptation algorithm. In this paper, the VMM approach is expanded for multi-extended object tracking where objects can be occluded and are only partially visible. The occlusion can be compensated if the extension estimation is performed for all objects together. The VMM now receives as input an estimation for the multi-object state and the output are the measurements that this multi-object state would cause.

With the high resolution of modern sensors such as multilayer LiDARs, estimating the 3D shape in an extended object tracking procedure is possible. In recent years, 3D shapes have been estimated in spherical coordinates using Gaussian processes, spherical double Fourier series or spherical harmonics. However, observations have shown that in many scenarios only a few measurements are obtained from top or bottom surfaces, leading to error-prone estimates in spherical coordinates. Therefore, in this paper we propose to estimate the shape in cylindrical coordinates instead, applying harmonic functions. Specifically, we derive an expansion for 3D shapes in cylindrical coordinates by solving a boundary value problem for the Laplace equation. This shape representation is then integrated in a plain greedy association model and compared to shape estimation procedures in spherical coordinates. Since the shape representation is only integrated in a basic estimator, the results are preliminary and a detailed discussion for future work is presented at the end of the paper.

Feature-Based Proposal Density Optimization for Nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral Control
(2022)

This paper presents a novel feature-based sampling strategy for nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral (MPPI) control. In MPPI control, the optimal control is calculated by solving a stochastic optimal control problem online using the weighted inference of stochastic trajectories. While the algorithm can be excellently parallelized the closed- loop performance is dependent on the information quality of the drawn samples. Because these samples are drawn using a proposal density, its quality is crucial for the solver and thus the controller performance. In classical MPPI control, the explored state-space is strongly constrained by assumptions that refer to the control value variance, which are necessary for transforming the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation into a linear second-order partial differential equation. To achieve excellent performance even with discontinuous cost-functions, in this novel approach, knowledge-based features are used to determine the proposal density and thus, the region of state- space for exploration. This paper addresses the question of how the performance of the MPPI algorithm can be improved using a feature-based mixture of base densities. Further, the developed algorithm is applied on an autonomous vessel that follows a track and concurrently avoids collisions using an emergency braking feature.

This paper presents a systematic comparison of different advanced approaches for motion prediction of vessels for docking scenarios. Therefore, a conventional nonlinear gray-box-model, its extension to a hybrid model using an additional regression neural network (RNN) and a black-box-model only based on a RNN are compared. The optimal hyperparameters are found by grid search. The training and validation data for the different models is collected in full-scale experiments using the solar research vessel Solgenia. The performances of the different prediction models are compared in full-scale scenarios. %To use the investigated approaches for controller design, a general optimal control problem containing the advanced models is described. These can improve advanced control strategies e.g., nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) or reinforcement learning (RL). This paper explores the question of what the advantages and disadvantages of the different presented prediction approaches are and how they can be used to improve the docking behavior of a vessel.

The growing error rates of triple-level cell (TLC) and quadruple-level cell (QLC) NAND flash memories have led to the application of error correction coding with soft-input decoding techniques in flash-based storage systems. Typically, flash memory is organized in pages where the individual bits per cell are assigned to different pages and different codewords of the error-correcting code. This page-wise encoding minimizes the read latency with hard-input decoding. To increase the decoding capability, soft-input decoding is used eventually due to the aging of the cells. This soft-decoding requires multiple read operations. Hence, the soft-read operations reduce the achievable throughput, and increase the read latency and power consumption. In this work, we investigate a different encoding and decoding approach that improves the error correction performance without increasing the number of reference voltages. We consider TLC and QLC flashes where all bits are jointly encoded using a Gray labeling. This cell-wise encoding improves the achievable channel capacity compared with independent page-wise encoding. Errors with cell-wise read operations typically result in a single erroneous bit per cell. We present a coding approach based on generalized concatenated codes that utilizes this property.

In this paper, a novel feature-based sampling strategy for nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral (MPPI) control is presented. Using the MPPI approach, the optimal feedback control is calculated by solving a stochastic optimal control (OCP) problem online by evaluating the weighted inference of sampled stochastic trajectories. While the MPPI algorithm can be excellently parallelized, the closed-loop performance strongly depends on the information quality of the sampled trajectories. To draw samples, a proposal density is used. The solver’s and thus, the controller’s performance is of high quality if the sampled trajectories drawn from this proposal density are located in low-cost regions of state-space. In classical MPPI control, the explored state-space is strongly constrained by assumptions that refer to the control value’s covariance matrix, which are necessary for transforming the stochastic Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation into a linear second-order partial differential equation. To achieve excellent performance even with discontinuous cost functions, in this novel approach, knowledge-based features are introduced to constitute the proposal density and thus the low-cost region of state-space for exploration. This paper addresses the question of how the performance of the MPPI algorithm can be improved using a feature-based mixture of base densities. Furthermore, the developed algorithm is applied to an autonomous vessel that follows a track and concurrently avoids collisions using an emergency braking feature. Therefore, the presented feature-based MPPI algorithm is applied and analyzed in both simulation and full-scale experiments.

Docking Control of a Fully-Actuated Autonomous Vessel using Model Predictive Path Integral Control
(2022)

This paper presents the docking control of an autonomous vessel using the nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral (MPPI) approach. This algorithm is based on a path integral over stochastic trajectories and can be parallelized easily. The controller parameters are tuned offline using knowledge of the system and simulations, including nonlinear state and disturbance observer. The cost function implicitly contains information regarding the surrounding of the docking position. This approach allows continuous optimization of the trajectory with respect to the system state, disturbance state and actuator dynamics. The control strategy has been tested in full-scale experiments using the solar research vessel Solgenia. The investigated MPPI controller has demonstrated excellent performance in both, simulation and real-world experiments. This paper addresses the question of how the MPPI algorithm can be applied to dock a fully-actuated vessel and what benefits its application achieves.

This paper presents the swinging up and stabilization control of a Furuta pendulum using the recently published nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral (MPPI) approach. This algorithm is based on a path integral over stochastic trajectories and can be parallelized easily. The controller parameters are tuned offline regarding the nonlinear system dynamics and simulations. Constraints in terms of state and input are taken into account in the cost function. The presented approach sequentially computes an optimal control sequence that minimizes this optimal control problem online. The control strategy has been tested in full-scale experiments using a pendulum prototype. The investigated MPPI controller has demonstrated excellent performance in simulation for the swinging up and stabilizing task. In order to also achieve outstanding performance in a real-world experiment using a controller with limited computing power, a linear quadratic controller (LQR) is designed for the stabilization task. In this paper, the determination of the controller parameters for the MPPI algorithm is described in detail. Further, a discussion treats the advantages of the nonlinear MPPI control.