## Institut für Systemdynamik - ISD

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- 360-degree coverage (1)
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- Adaptive birth density (1)
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#### Institute

- Institut für Systemdynamik - ISD (91) (remove)

Multi-object tracking filters require a birth density to detect new objects from measurement data. If the initial positions of new objects are unknown, it may be useful to choose an adaptive birth density. In this paper, a circular birth density is proposed, which is placed like a band around the surveillance area. This allows for 360° coverage. The birth density is described in polar coordinates and considers all point-symmetric quantities such as radius, radial velocity and tangential velocity of objects entering the surveillance area. Since it is assumed that these quantities are unknown and may vary between different targets, detected trajectories, and in particular their initial states, are used to estimate the distribution of initial states. The adapted birth density is approximated as a Gaussian mixture, so that it can be used for filters operating on Cartesian coordinates.

This work presents a new concept to implement the elliptic curve point multiplication (PM). This computation is based on a new modular arithmetic over Gaussian integer fields. Gaussian integers are a subset of the complex numbers such that the real and imaginary parts are integers. Since Gaussian integer fields are isomorphic to prime fields, this arithmetic is suitable for many elliptic curves. Representing the key by a Gaussian integer expansion is beneficial to reduce the computational complexity and the memory requirements of secure hardware implementations, which are robust against attacks. Furthermore, an area-efficient coprocessor design is proposed with an arithmetic unit that enables Montgomery modular arithmetic over Gaussian integers. The proposed architecture and the new arithmetic provide high flexibility, i.e., binary and non-binary key expansions as well as protected and unprotected PM calculations are supported. The proposed coprocessor is a competitive solution for a compact ECC processor suitable for applications in small embedded systems.

In many industrial applications a workpiece is continuously fed through a heating zone in order to reach a desired temperature to obtain specific material properties. Many examples of such distributed parameter systems exist in heavy industry and also in furniture production such processes can be found. In this paper, a real-time capable model for a heating process with application to industrial furniture production is modeled. As the model is intended to be used in a Model Predictive Control (MPC) application, the main focus is to achieve minimum computational runtime while maintaining a sufficient amount of accuracy. Thus, the governing Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is discretized using finite differences on a grid, specifically tailored to this application. The grid is optimized to yield acceptable accuracy with a minimum number of grid nodes such that a relatively low order model is obtained. Subsequently, an explicit Runge-Kutta ODE (Ordinary Differential Equation) solver of fourth order is compared to the Crank-Nicolson integration scheme presented in Weiss et al. (2022) in terms of runtime and accuracy. Finally, the unknown thermal parameters of the process are estimated using real-world measurement data that was obtained from an experimental setup. The final model yields acceptable accuracy while at the same time shows promising computation time, which enables its use in an MPC controller.

This paper describes an early lumping approach for generating a mathematical model of the heating process of a moving dual-layer substrate. The heat is supplied by convection and nonlinearly distributed over the whole considered spatial extend of the substrate. Using CFD simulations as a reference, two different modelling approaches have been investigated in order to achieve the most suitable model type. It is shown that due to the possibility of using the transition matrix for time discretization, an equivalent circuit model achieves superior results when compared to the Crank-Nicolson method. In order to maintain a constant sampling time for the in-visioned-control strategies, the effect of variable speed is transformed into a system description, where the state vector has constant length but a variable number of non-zero entries. The handling of the variable transport speed during the heating process is considered as the main contribution of this work. The result is a model, suitable for being used in future control strategies.

Large-scale quantum computers threaten the security of today's public-key cryptography. The McEliece cryptosystem is one of the most promising candidates for post-quantum cryptography. However, the McEliece system has the drawback of large key sizes for the public key. Similar to other public-key cryptosystems, the McEliece system has a comparably high computational complexity. Embedded devices often lack the required computational resources to compute those systems with sufficiently low latency. Hence, those systems require hardware acceleration. Lately, a generalized concatenated code construction was proposed together with a restrictive channel model, which allows for much smaller public keys for comparable security levels. In this work, we propose a hardware decoder suitable for a McEliece system based on these generalized concatenated codes. The results show that those systems are suitable for resource-constrained embedded devices.

Modeling a suitable birth density is a challenge when using Bernoulli filters such as the Labeled Multi-Bernoulli (LMB) filter. The birth density of newborn targets is unknown in most applications, but must be given as a prior to the filter. Usually the birth density stays unchanged or is designed based on the measurements from previous time steps.
In this paper, we assume that the true initial state of new objects is normally distributed. The expected value and covariance of the underlying density are unknown parameters. Using the estimated multi-object state of the LMB and the Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) recursion, these parameters are recursively estimated and adapted after a target is detected.
The main contribution of this paper is an algorithm to estimate the parameters of the birth density and its integration into the LMB framework. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the detection driven adaptive birth density in two scenarios. The approach can also be applied to filters that are able to estimate trajectories.

Error correction coding (ECC) for optical communication and persistent storage systems require high rate codes that enable high data throughput and low residual errors. Recently, different concatenated coding schemes were proposed that are based on binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes that have low error correcting capabilities. Commonly, hardware implementations for BCH decoding are based on the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm (BMA). However, for single, double, and triple error correcting BCH codes, Peterson's algorithm can be more efficient than the BMA. The known hardware architectures of Peterson's algorithm require Galois field inversion. This inversion dominates the hardware complexity and limits the decoding speed. This work proposes an inversion-less version of Peterson's algorithm. Moreover, a decoding architecture is presented that is faster than decoders that employ inversion or the fully parallel BMA at a comparable circuit size.

The McEliece cryptosystem is a promising candidate for post-quantum public-key encryption. In this work, we propose q-ary codes over Gaussian integers for the McEliece system and a new channel model. With this one Mannheim error channel, errors are limited to weight one. We investigate the channel capacity of this channel and discuss its relation to the McEliece system. The proposed codes are based on a simple product code construction and have a low complexity decoding algorithm. For the one Mannheim error channel, these codes achieve a higher error correction capability than maximum distance separable codes with bounded minimum distance decoding. This improves the work factor regarding decoding attacks based on information-set decoding.

This paper presents a modeling approach of an industrial heating process where a stripe-shaped workpiece is heated up to a specific temperature by applying hot air through a nozzle. The workpiece is moving through the heating zone and is considered to be of infinite length. The speed of the substrate is varying over time. The derived model is supposed to be computationally cheap to enable its use in a model-based control setting. We start by formulating the governing PDE and the corresponding boundary conditions. The PDE is then discretized on a spatial grid using finite differences and two different integration schemes, explicit and implicit, are derived. The two models are evaluated in terms of computational effort and accuracy. It turns out that the implicit approach is favorable for the regarded process. We optimize the grid of the model to achieve a low number of grid nodes while maintaining a sufficient amount of accuracy. Finally, the thermodynamical parameters are optimized in order to fit the model's output to real-world data that was obtained by experiments.

A constructive method for the design of nonlinear observers is discussed. To formulate conditions for the construction of the observer gains, stability results for nonlinear singularly perturbed systems are utilised. The nonlinear observer is designed directly in the given coordinates, where the error dynamics between the plant and the observer becomes singularly perturbed by a high-gain part of the observer injection, and the information of the slow manifold is exploited to construct the observer gains of the reduced-order dynamics. This is in contrast to typical high-gain observer approaches, where the observer gains are chosen such that the nonlinearities are dominated by a linear system. It will be demonstrated that the considered approach is particularly suited for self-sensing electromechanical systems. Two variants of the proposed observer design are illustrated for a nonlinear electromagnetic actuator, where the mechanical quantities, i.e. the position and the velocity, are not measured