## Institut für Systemdynamik - ISD

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The trajectory tracking problem for a fully-actuated real-scaled surface vessel is addressed in this paper by designing a backstepping controller with a multivariable integral action, considering the thruster allocation problem. The performance and robustness of this controller are evaluated in simulation, taking into account environmental disturbance forces and modeling mismatch, using a docking maneuver as a reference trajectory. Furthermore, a comparison between the backstepping controller and a nonlinear position PID-Control with flatness based-feedforward is also analyzed.

The code-based McEliece cryptosystem is a promising candidate for post-quantum cryptography. The sender encodes a message, using a public scrambled generator matrix, and adds a random error vector. In this work, we consider q-ary codes and restrict the Lee weight of the added error symbols. This leads to an increased error correction capability and a larger work factor for information-set decoding attacks. In particular, we consider codes over an extension field and use the one-Lee error channel, which restricts the error values to Lee weight one. For this channel model, generalized concatenated codes can achieve high error correction capabilities. We discuss the decoding of those codes and the possible gain for decoding beyond the guaranteed error correction capability.

In this letter, we present an approach to building a new generalized multistream spatial modulation system (GMSM), where the information is conveyed by the two active antennas with signal indices and using all possible active antenna combinations. The signal constellations associated with these antennas may have different sizes. In addition, four-dimensional hybrid frequency-phase modulated signals are utilized in GMSM. Examples of GMSM systems are given and computer simulation results are presented for transmission over Rayleigh and deep Nakagami- m flat-fading channels when maximum-likelihood detection is used. The presented results indicate a significant improvement of characteristics compared to the best-known similar systems.

Reed-Muller (RM) codes have recently regained some interest in the context of low latency communications and due to their relation to polar codes. RM codes can be constructed based on the Plotkin construction. In this work, we consider concatenated codes based on the Plotkin construction, where extended Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes are used as component codes. This leads to improved code parameters compared to RM codes. Moreover, this construction is more flexible concerning the attainable code rates. Additionally, new soft-input decoding algorithms are proposed that exploit the recursive structure of the concatenation and the cyclic structure of the component codes. First, we consider the decoding of the cyclic component codes and propose a low complexity hybrid ordered statistics decoding algorithm. Next, this algorithm is applied to list decoding of the Plotkin construction. The proposed list decoding approach achieves near-maximum-likelihood performance for codes with medium lengths. The performance is comparable to state-of-the-art decoders, whereas the complexity is reduced.

Large-scale quantum computers threaten the security of today's public-key cryptography. The McEliece cryptosystem is one of the most promising candidates for post-quantum cryptography. However, the McEliece system has the drawback of large key sizes for the public key. Similar to other public-key cryptosystems, the McEliece system has a comparably high computational complexity. Embedded devices often lack the required computational resources to compute those systems with sufficiently low latency. Hence, those systems require hardware acceleration. Lately, a generalized concatenated code construction was proposed together with a restrictive channel model, which allows for much smaller public keys for comparable security levels. In this work, we propose a hardware decoder suitable for a McEliece system based on these generalized concatenated codes. The results show that those systems are suitable for resource-constrained embedded devices.

Automotive computing applications like AI databases, ADAS, and advanced infotainment systems have a huge need for persistent memory. This trend requires NAND flash memories designed for extreme automotive environments. However, the error probability of NAND flash memories has increased in recent years due to higher memory density and production tolerances. Hence, strong error correction coding is needed to meet automotive storage requirements. Many errors can be corrected by soft decoding algorithms. However, soft decoding is very resource-intensive and should be avoided when possible. NAND flash memories are organized in pages, and the error correction codes are usually encoded page-wise to reduce the latency of random reads. This page-wise encoding does not reach the maximum achievable capacity. Reading soft information increases the channel capacity but at the cost of higher latency and power consumption. In this work, we consider cell-wise encoding, which also increases the capacity compared to page-wise encoding. We analyze the cell-wise processing of data in triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash and show the performance gain when using Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes. In addition, we investigate a coding approach with page-wise encoding and cell-wise reading.

Large persistent memory is crucial for many applications in embedded systems and automotive computing like AI databases, ADAS, and cutting-edge infotainment systems. Such applications require reliable NAND flash memories made for harsh automotive conditions. However, due to high memory densities and production tolerances, the error probability of NAND flash memories has risen. As the number of program/erase cycles and the data retention times increase, non-volatile NAND flash memories' performance and dependability suffer. The read reference voltages of the flash cells vary due to these aging processes. In this work, we consider the issue of reference voltage adaption. The considered estimation procedure uses shallow neural networks to estimate the read reference voltages for different life-cycle conditions with the help of histogram measurements. We demonstrate that the training data for the neural networks can be enhanced by using shifted histograms, i.e., a training of the neural networks is possible based on a few measurements of some extreme points used as training data. The trained neural networks generalize well for other life-cycle conditions.

In many industrial applications a workpiece is continuously fed through a heating zone in order to reach a desired temperature to obtain specific material properties. Many examples of such distributed parameter systems exist in heavy industry and also in furniture production such processes can be found. In this paper, a real-time capable model for a heating process with application to industrial furniture production is modeled. As the model is intended to be used in a Model Predictive Control (MPC) application, the main focus is to achieve minimum computational runtime while maintaining a sufficient amount of accuracy. Thus, the governing Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is discretized using finite differences on a grid, specifically tailored to this application. The grid is optimized to yield acceptable accuracy with a minimum number of grid nodes such that a relatively low order model is obtained. Subsequently, an explicit Runge-Kutta ODE (Ordinary Differential Equation) solver of fourth order is compared to the Crank-Nicolson integration scheme presented in Weiss et al. (2022) in terms of runtime and accuracy. Finally, the unknown thermal parameters of the process are estimated using real-world measurement data that was obtained from an experimental setup. The final model yields acceptable accuracy while at the same time shows promising computation time, which enables its use in an MPC controller.

The trajectory tracking problem for a real-scaled fully-actuated surface vessel is addressed in this paper. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) scheme was designed to track a reference trajectory, considering state and input constraints, and environmental disturbances, which were assumed to be constant over the prediction horizon. The controller was tested by performing docking maneuvers using the real-scaled research vessel from the University of Applied Sciences Konstanz at the Rhine river in Germany. A comparison between the experimental results and the simulated ones was analyzed to validate the NMPC controller.

This paper presents a modeling approach of an industrial heating process where a stripe-shaped workpiece is heated up to a specific temperature by applying hot air through a nozzle. The workpiece is moving through the heating zone and is considered to be of infinite length. The speed of the substrate is varying over time. The derived model is supposed to be computationally cheap to enable its use in a model-based control setting. We start by formulating the governing PDE and the corresponding boundary conditions. The PDE is then discretized on a spatial grid using finite differences and two different integration schemes, explicit and implicit, are derived. The two models are evaluated in terms of computational effort and accuracy. It turns out that the implicit approach is favorable for the regarded process. We optimize the grid of the model to achieve a low number of grid nodes while maintaining a sufficient amount of accuracy. Finally, the thermodynamical parameters are optimized in order to fit the model's output to real-world data that was obtained by experiments.

Code-based cryptosystems are promising candidates for post-quantum cryptography. Recently, generalized concatenated codes over Gaussian and Eisenstein integers were proposed for those systems. For a channel model with errors of restricted weight, those q-ary codes lead to high error correction capabilities. Hence, these codes achieve high work factors for information set decoding attacks. In this work, we adapt this concept to codes for the weight-one error channel, i.e., a binary channel model where at most one bit-error occurs in each block of m bits. We also propose a low complexity decoding algorithm for the proposed codes. Compared to codes over Gaussian and Eisenstein integers, these codes achieve higher minimum Hamming distances for the dual codes of the inner component codes. This property increases the work factor for a structural attack on concatenated codes leading to higher overall security. For comparable security, the key size for the proposed code construction is significantly smaller than for the classic McEliece scheme based on Goppa codes.

Nowadays, most digital modulation schemes are based on conventional signal constellations that have no algebraic group, ring, or field properties, e.g. square quadrature-amplitude modulation constellations. Signal constellations with algebraic structure can enhance the system performance. For instance, multidimensional signal constellations based on dense lattices can achieve performance gains due to the dense packing. The algebraic structure enables low-complexity decoding and detection schemes. In this work, signal constellations with algebraic properties and their application in spatial modulation transmission schemes are investigated. Several design approaches of two- and four-dimensional signal constellations based on Gaussian, Eisenstein, and Hurwitz integers are shown. Detection algorithms with reduced complexity are proposed. It is shown, that the proposed Eisenstein and Hurwitz constellations combined with the proposed suboptimal detection can outperform conventional two-dimensional constellations with ML detection.

Virtual measurement models (VMM) can be used to generate artificial measurements and emulate complex sensor models such as Lidar. The input of the VMM is an estimation and the output is the set of measurements this estimation would cause. A Kalman filter with extension estimation based on random matrices is used to filter mean and covariance of the real measurements. If these match the mean and covariance of the artificial measurements, then the given estimation is appropriate. The optimal input of the VMM is found using an adaptation algorithm. In this paper, the VMM approach is expanded for multi-extended object tracking where objects can be occluded and are only partially visible. The occlusion can be compensated if the extension estimation is performed for all objects together. The VMM now receives as input an estimation for the multi-object state and the output are the measurements that this multi-object state would cause.

With the high resolution of modern sensors such as multilayer LiDARs, estimating the 3D shape in an extended object tracking procedure is possible. In recent years, 3D shapes have been estimated in spherical coordinates using Gaussian processes, spherical double Fourier series or spherical harmonics. However, observations have shown that in many scenarios only a few measurements are obtained from top or bottom surfaces, leading to error-prone estimates in spherical coordinates. Therefore, in this paper we propose to estimate the shape in cylindrical coordinates instead, applying harmonic functions. Specifically, we derive an expansion for 3D shapes in cylindrical coordinates by solving a boundary value problem for the Laplace equation. This shape representation is then integrated in a plain greedy association model and compared to shape estimation procedures in spherical coordinates. Since the shape representation is only integrated in a basic estimator, the results are preliminary and a detailed discussion for future work is presented at the end of the paper.

Feature-Based Proposal Density Optimization for Nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral Control
(2022)

This paper presents a novel feature-based sampling strategy for nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral (MPPI) control. In MPPI control, the optimal control is calculated by solving a stochastic optimal control problem online using the weighted inference of stochastic trajectories. While the algorithm can be excellently parallelized the closed- loop performance is dependent on the information quality of the drawn samples. Because these samples are drawn using a proposal density, its quality is crucial for the solver and thus the controller performance. In classical MPPI control, the explored state-space is strongly constrained by assumptions that refer to the control value variance, which are necessary for transforming the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation into a linear second-order partial differential equation. To achieve excellent performance even with discontinuous cost-functions, in this novel approach, knowledge-based features are used to determine the proposal density and thus, the region of state- space for exploration. This paper addresses the question of how the performance of the MPPI algorithm can be improved using a feature-based mixture of base densities. Further, the developed algorithm is applied on an autonomous vessel that follows a track and concurrently avoids collisions using an emergency braking feature.

This paper presents a systematic comparison of different advanced approaches for motion prediction of vessels for docking scenarios. Therefore, a conventional nonlinear gray-box-model, its extension to a hybrid model using an additional regression neural network (RNN) and a black-box-model only based on a RNN are compared. The optimal hyperparameters are found by grid search. The training and validation data for the different models is collected in full-scale experiments using the solar research vessel Solgenia. The performances of the different prediction models are compared in full-scale scenarios. %To use the investigated approaches for controller design, a general optimal control problem containing the advanced models is described. These can improve advanced control strategies e.g., nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) or reinforcement learning (RL). This paper explores the question of what the advantages and disadvantages of the different presented prediction approaches are and how they can be used to improve the docking behavior of a vessel.

The growing error rates of triple-level cell (TLC) and quadruple-level cell (QLC) NAND flash memories have led to the application of error correction coding with soft-input decoding techniques in flash-based storage systems. Typically, flash memory is organized in pages where the individual bits per cell are assigned to different pages and different codewords of the error-correcting code. This page-wise encoding minimizes the read latency with hard-input decoding. To increase the decoding capability, soft-input decoding is used eventually due to the aging of the cells. This soft-decoding requires multiple read operations. Hence, the soft-read operations reduce the achievable throughput, and increase the read latency and power consumption. In this work, we investigate a different encoding and decoding approach that improves the error correction performance without increasing the number of reference voltages. We consider TLC and QLC flashes where all bits are jointly encoded using a Gray labeling. This cell-wise encoding improves the achievable channel capacity compared with independent page-wise encoding. Errors with cell-wise read operations typically result in a single erroneous bit per cell. We present a coding approach based on generalized concatenated codes that utilizes this property.

In this paper, a novel feature-based sampling strategy for nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral (MPPI) control is presented. Using the MPPI approach, the optimal feedback control is calculated by solving a stochastic optimal control (OCP) problem online by evaluating the weighted inference of sampled stochastic trajectories. While the MPPI algorithm can be excellently parallelized, the closed-loop performance strongly depends on the information quality of the sampled trajectories. To draw samples, a proposal density is used. The solver’s and thus, the controller’s performance is of high quality if the sampled trajectories drawn from this proposal density are located in low-cost regions of state-space. In classical MPPI control, the explored state-space is strongly constrained by assumptions that refer to the control value’s covariance matrix, which are necessary for transforming the stochastic Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation into a linear second-order partial differential equation. To achieve excellent performance even with discontinuous cost functions, in this novel approach, knowledge-based features are introduced to constitute the proposal density and thus the low-cost region of state-space for exploration. This paper addresses the question of how the performance of the MPPI algorithm can be improved using a feature-based mixture of base densities. Furthermore, the developed algorithm is applied to an autonomous vessel that follows a track and concurrently avoids collisions using an emergency braking feature. Therefore, the presented feature-based MPPI algorithm is applied and analyzed in both simulation and full-scale experiments.

Docking Control of a Fully-Actuated Autonomous Vessel using Model Predictive Path Integral Control
(2022)

This paper presents the docking control of an autonomous vessel using the nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral (MPPI) approach. This algorithm is based on a path integral over stochastic trajectories and can be parallelized easily. The controller parameters are tuned offline using knowledge of the system and simulations, including nonlinear state and disturbance observer. The cost function implicitly contains information regarding the surrounding of the docking position. This approach allows continuous optimization of the trajectory with respect to the system state, disturbance state and actuator dynamics. The control strategy has been tested in full-scale experiments using the solar research vessel Solgenia. The investigated MPPI controller has demonstrated excellent performance in both, simulation and real-world experiments. This paper addresses the question of how the MPPI algorithm can be applied to dock a fully-actuated vessel and what benefits its application achieves.

This paper presents the swinging up and stabilization control of a Furuta pendulum using the recently published nonlinear Model Predictive Path Integral (MPPI) approach. This algorithm is based on a path integral over stochastic trajectories and can be parallelized easily. The controller parameters are tuned offline regarding the nonlinear system dynamics and simulations. Constraints in terms of state and input are taken into account in the cost function. The presented approach sequentially computes an optimal control sequence that minimizes this optimal control problem online. The control strategy has been tested in full-scale experiments using a pendulum prototype. The investigated MPPI controller has demonstrated excellent performance in simulation for the swinging up and stabilizing task. In order to also achieve outstanding performance in a real-world experiment using a controller with limited computing power, a linear quadratic controller (LQR) is designed for the stabilization task. In this paper, the determination of the controller parameters for the MPPI algorithm is described in detail. Further, a discussion treats the advantages of the nonlinear MPPI control.

In this paper, approximating the shape of a sailing boat using elliptic cones is investigated. Measurements are assumed to be gathered from the target's surface recorded by 3D scanning devices such as multilayer LiDAR sensors. Therefore, different models for estimating the sailing boat's extent are presented and evaluated in simulated and real-world scenarios. In particular, the measurement source association problem is addressed in the models. Simulated investigations are conducted with a static and a moving elliptic cone. The real-world scenario was recorded with a Velodyne Alpha Prime (VLP-128) mounted on a ferry of Lake Constance. Final results of this paper constitute the extent estimation of a single sailing boat using LiDAR data applying various measurement models.

Reliability Assessment of an Unscented Kalman Filter by Using Ellipsoidal Enclosure Techniques
(2022)

The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is widely used for the state, disturbance, and parameter estimation of nonlinear dynamic systems, for which both process and measurement uncertainties are represented in a probabilistic form. Although the UKF can often be shown to be more reliable for nonlinear processes than the linearization-based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) due to the enhanced approximation capabilities of its underlying probability distribution, it is not a priori obvious whether its strategy for selecting sigma points is sufficiently accurate to handle nonlinearities in the system dynamics and output equations. Such inaccuracies may arise for sufficiently strong nonlinearities in combination with large state, disturbance, and parameter covariances. Then, computationally more demanding approaches such as particle filters or the representation of (multi-modal) probability densities with the help of (Gaussian) mixture representations are possible ways to resolve this issue. To detect cases in a systematic manner that are not reliably handled by a standard EKF or UKF, this paper proposes the computation of outer bounds for state domains that are compatible with a certain percentage of confidence under the assumption of normally distributed states with the help of a set-based ellipsoidal calculus. The practical applicability of this approach is demonstrated for the estimation of state variables and parameters for the nonlinear dynamics of an unmanned surface vessel (USV).

Experimental Validation of Ellipsoidal Techniques for State Estimation in Marine Applications
(2022)

A reliable quantification of the worst-case influence of model uncertainty and external disturbances is crucial for the localization of vessels in marine applications. This is especially true if uncertain GPS-based position measurements are used to update predicted vessel locations that are obtained from the evaluation of a ship’s state equation. To reflect real-life working conditions, these state equations need to account for uncertainty in the system model, such as imperfect actuation and external disturbances due to effects such as wind and currents. As an application scenario, the GPS-based localization of autonomous DDboat robots is considered in this paper. Using experimental data, the efficiency of an ellipsoidal approach, which exploits a bounded-error representation of disturbances and uncertainties, is demonstrated.

Multi-object tracking filters require a birth density to detect new objects from measurement data. If the initial positions of new objects are unknown, it may be useful to choose an adaptive birth density. In this paper, a circular birth density is proposed, which is placed like a band around the surveillance area. This allows for 360° coverage. The birth density is described in polar coordinates and considers all point-symmetric quantities such as radius, radial velocity and tangential velocity of objects entering the surveillance area. Since it is assumed that these quantities are unknown and may vary between different targets, detected trajectories, and in particular their initial states, are used to estimate the distribution of initial states. The adapted birth density is approximated as a Gaussian mixture, so that it can be used for filters operating on Cartesian coordinates.

Extended Target Tracking With a Lidar Sensor Using Random Matrices and a Virtual Measurement Model
(2022)

Random matrices are widely used to estimate the extent of an elliptically contoured object. Usually, it is assumed that the measurements follow a normal distribution, with its standard deviation being proportional to the object’s extent. However, the random matrix approach can filter the center of gravity and the covariance matrix of measurements independently of the measurement model. This work considers the whole chain from data acquisition to the linear Kalman Filter with extension estimation as a reference plant. The input is the (unknown) ground truth (position and extent). The output is the filtered center of gravity and the filtered covariance matrix of the measurement distribution. A virtual measurement model emulates the behavior of the reference plant. The input of the virtual measurement model is adapted using the proposed algorithm until the output parameters of the virtual measurement model match the result of the reference plant. After the adaptation, the input to the virtual measurement model is considered an estimation for position and extent. The main contribution of this paper is the reference model concept and an adaptation algorithm to optimize the input of the virtual measurement model.

Kapitel 2 der vorliegenden Arbeit beschreibt die theoretischen Grundlagen optimaler Regelung und die unterschiedlichen Methoden des Pfadintegral Frameworks zur Reglersynthese. Zudem wird ein Ansatz zur Erweiterung des stochastischen NMPC dargestellt, sodass eine Adaption an eine real vorliegende Systemdynamik erfolgt. Weiter wird eine Methode entwickelt und beschrieben, welche die Effizienz des Algorithmus stark erhöht.
In Kapitel 3 wird aufgezeigt, wie die Pfadintegral Regelung dazu genutzt wird ein Furuta Pendel aufzuschwingen.
In Kapitel 4 werden die Algorithmen zur Lösung unterschiedlicher Problemstellungen im Kontext eines Forschungsboot appliziert. So wird unter anderem gezeigt, wie ein Pfadintegral Regelungsalgorithmus genutzt werden kann, um autonom mit dem Forschungsboot Solgenia am Steg der HTWG Konstanz anzulegen.
Abschließend wird in Kapitel 5 ein Fazit aus den Ergebnissen gezogen, diese eingeordnet und ein Ausblick auf weitere mögliche Arbeiten gegeben.

This paper describes the development of a control system for an industrial heating application. In this process a moving substrate is passing through a heating zone with variable speed. Heat is applied by hot air to the substrate with the air flow rate being the manipulated variable. The aim is to control the substrate’s temperature at a specific location after passing the heating zone. First, a model is derived for a point attached to the moving substrate. This is modified to reflect the temperature of the moving substrate at the specified location. In order to regulate the temperature a nonlinear model predictive control approach is applied using an implicit Euler scheme to integrate the model and an augmented gradient based optimization approach. The performance of the controller has been validated both by simulations and experiments on the physical plant. The respective results are presented in this paper.

Trajectory Tracking of a Fully-actuated Surface Vessel using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control
(2021)

The trajectory tracking problem for a fully-actuated real-scaled surface vessel is addressed in this paper. The unknown hydrodynamic and propulsion parameters of the vessel’s dynamic model were identified using an experimental maneuver-based identification process. Then, a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) scheme is designed and the controller’s performance is assessed through the variation of NMPC parameters and constraints tightening for tracking a curved trajectory.

In this paper, a systematic comparison of three different advanced control strategies for automated docking of a vessel is presented. The controllers are automatically tuned offline by applying an optimization process using simulations of the whole system including trajectory planner and state and disturbance observer. Then investigations are conducted subject to performance and robustness using Monte Carlos simulation with varying model parameters and disturbances. The control strategies have also been tested in full scale experiments using the solar research vessel Solgenia. The investigated control strategies all have demonstrated very good performance in both, simulation and real world experiments. Videos are available under https://www.htwg-konstanz.de/forschung-und-transfer/institute-und-labore/isd/regelungstechnik/videos/

In multi-extended object tracking, parameters (e.g., extent) and trajectory are often determined independently. In this paper, we propose a joint parameter and trajectory (JPT) state and its integration into the Bayesian framework. This allows processing measurements that contain information about parameters and states. Examples of such measurements are bounding boxes given from an image processing algorithm. It is shown that this approach can consider correlations between states and parameters. In this paper, we present the JPT Bernoulli filter. Since parameters and state elements are considered in the weighting of the measurement data assignment hypotheses, the performance is higher than with the conventional Bernoulli filter. The JPT approach can be also used for other Bayes filters.

List decoding for concatenated codes based on the Plotkin construction with BCH component codes
(2021)

Reed-Muller codes are a popular code family based on the Plotkin construction. Recently, these codes have regained some interest due to their close relation to polar codes and their low-complexity decoding. We consider a similar code family, i.e., the Plotkin concatenation with binary BCH component codes. This construction is more flexible regarding the attainable code parameters. In this work, we consider a list-based decoding algorithm for the Plotkin concatenation with BCH component codes. The proposed list decoding leads to a significant coding gain with only a small increase in computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate that the Plotkin concatenation with the proposed decoding achieves near maximum likelihood decoding performance. This coding scheme can outperform polar codes for moderate code lengths.

The encoding of antenna patterns with generalized spatial modulation as well as other index modulation techniques require w-out-of-n encoding where all binary vectors of length n have the same weight w. This constant-weight property cannot be obtained by conventional linear coding schemes. In this work, we propose a new class of constant-weight codes that result from the concatenation of convolutional codes with constant-weight block codes. These constant-weight convolutional codes are nonlinear binary trellis codes that can be decoded with the Viterbi algorithm. Some constructed constant-weight convolutional codes are optimum free distance codes. Simulation results demonstrate that the decoding performance with Viterbi decoding is close to the performance of the best-known linear codes. Similarly, simulation results for spatial modulation with a simple on-off keying show a significant coding gain with the proposed coded index modulation scheme.

Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC) plays a crucial role in speech communication devices to enable full-duplex communication. AEC algorithms have been studied extensively in the literature. However, device specific details like microphone or loudspeaker configurations are often neglected, despite their impact on the echo attenuation or near-end speech quality. In this work, we propose a method to investigate different loudspeaker-microphone configurations with respect to their contribution to the overall AEC performance. A generic AEC system consisting of an adaptive filter and a Wiener post filter is used for a fair comparison between different setups. We propose the near-end-to-residual-echo ratio (NRER) and the attenuation-of-near-end (AON) as quality measures for the full-duplex AEC performance.

Large-scale quantum computers threaten today's public-key cryptosystems. The code-based McEliece and Niederreiter cryptosystems are among the most promising candidates for post-quantum cryptography. Recently, a new class of q-ary product codes over Gaussian integers together with an efficient decoding algorithm were proposed for the McEliece cryptosystems. It was shown that these codes achieve a higher work factor for information-set decoding attacks than maximum distance separable (MDS) codes with comparable length and dimension. In this work, we adapt this q-ary product code construction to codes over Eisenstein integers. We propose a new syndrome decoding method which is applicable for Niederreiter cryptosystems. The code parameters and work factors for information-set decoding are comparable to codes over Gaussian integers. Hence, the new construction is not favorable for the McEliece system. Nevertheless, it is beneficial for the Niederreiter system, where it achieves larger message lengths. While the Niederreiter and McEliece systems have the same level of security, the Niederreiter system can be advantageous for some applications, e.g., it enables digital signatures. The proposed coding scheme is interesting for lightweight Niederreiter cryptosystems and embedded security due to the short code lengths and low decoding complexity.

Code-based cryptography is a promising candidate for post-quantum public-key encryption. The classic McEliece system uses binary Goppa codes, which are known for their good error correction capability. However, the key generation and decoding procedures of the classic McEliece system have a high computation complexity. Recently, q-ary concatenated codes over Gaussian integers were proposed for the McEliece cryptosystem together with the one-Mannheim error channel, where the error values are limited to Mannheim weight one. For this channel, concatenated codes over Gaussian integers achieve a higher error correction capability than maximum distance separable (MDS) codes with bounded minimum distance decoding. This improves the work factor regarding decoding attacks based on information-set decoding. This work proposes an improved construction for codes over Gaussian integers. These generalized concatenated codes extent the rate region where the work factor is beneficial compared to MDS codes. They allow for shorter public keys for the same level of security as the classic Goppa codes. Such codes are beneficial for lightweight code-based cryptosystems.

Algorithms and Architectures for Cryptography and Source Coding in Non-Volatile Flash Memories
(2021)

In this work, algorithms and architectures for cryptography and source coding are developed, which are suitable for many resource-constrained embedded systems such as non-volatile flash memories. A new concept for elliptic curve cryptography is presented, which uses an arithmetic over Gaussian integers. Gaussian integers are a subset of the complex numbers with integers as real and imaginary parts. Ordinary modular arithmetic over Gaussian integers is computational expensive. To reduce the complexity, a new arithmetic based on the Montgomery reduction is presented. For the elliptic curve point multiplication, this arithmetic over Gaussian integers improves the computational efficiency, the resistance against side channel attacks, and reduces the memory requirements. Furthermore, an efficient variant of the Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) algorithm for universal lossless data compression is investigated. Instead of one LZW dictionary, this algorithm applies several dictionaries to speed up the encoding process. Two dictionary partitioning techniques are introduced that improve the compression rate and reduce the memory size of this parallel dictionary LZW algorithm.

Error correction coding for optical communication and storage requires high rate codes that enable high data throughput and low residual errors. Recently, different concatenated coding schemes were proposed that are based on binary BCH codes with low error correcting capabilities. In this work, low-complexity hard- and soft-input decoding methods for such codes are investigated. We propose three concepts to reduce the complexity of the decoder. For the algebraic decoding we demonstrate that Peterson's algorithm can be more efficient than the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm for single, double, and triple error correcting BCH codes. We propose an inversion-less version of Peterson's algorithm and a corresponding decoding architecture. Furthermore, we propose a decoding approach that combines algebraic hard-input decoding with soft-input bit-flipping decoding. An acceptance criterion is utilized to determine the reliability of the estimated codewords. For many received codewords the stopping criterion indicates that the hard-decoding result is sufficiently reliable, and the costly soft-input decoding can be omitted. To reduce the memory size for the soft-values, we propose a bit-flipping decoder that stores only the positions and soft-values of a small number of code symbols. This method significantly reduces the memory requirements and has little adverse effect on the decoding performance.

Four-Dimensional Hurwitz Signal Constellations, Set Partitioning, Detection, and Multilevel Coding
(2021)

The Hurwitz lattice provides the densest four-dimensional packing. This fact has motivated research on four-dimensional Hurwitz signal constellations for optical and wireless communications. This work presents a new algebraic construction of finite sets of Hurwitz integers that is inherently accompanied by a respective modulo operation. These signal constellations are investigated for transmission over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. It is shown that these signal constellations have a better constellation figure of merit and hence a better asymptotic performance over an AWGN channel when compared with conventional signal constellations with algebraic structure, e.g., two-dimensional Gaussian-integer constellations or four-dimensional Lipschitz-integer constellations. We introduce two concepts for set partitioning of the Hurwitz integers. The first method is useful to reduce the computational complexity of the symbol detection. This suboptimum detection approach achieves near-maximum-likelihood performance. In the second case, the partitioning exploits the algebraic structure of the Hurwitz signal constellations. We partition the Hurwitz integers into additive subgroups in a manner that the minimum Euclidean distance of each subgroup is larger than in the original set. This enables multilevel code constructions for the new signal constellations.

The performance and reliability of non-volatile NAND flash memories deteriorate as the number of program/erase cycles grows. The reliability also suffers from cell to cell interference, long data retention time, and read disturb. These processes effect the read threshold voltages. The aging of the cells causes voltage shifts which lead to high bit error rates (BER) with fixed pre-defined read thresholds. This work proposes two methods that aim on minimizing the BER by adjusting the read thresholds. Both methods utilize the number of errors detected in the codeword of an error correction code. It is demonstrated that the observed number of errors is a good measure for the voltage shifts and is utilized for the initial calibration of the read thresholds. The second approach is a gradual channel estimation method that utilizes the asymmetrical error probabilities for the one-to-zero and zero-to-one errors that are caused by threshold calibration errors. Both methods are investigated utilizing the mutual information between the optimal read voltage and the measured error values.
Numerical results obtained from flash measurements show that these methods reduce the BER of NAND flash memories significantly.

The McEliece cryptosystem is a promising candidate for post-quantum public-key encryption. In this work, we propose q-ary codes over Gaussian integers for the McEliece system and a new channel model. With this one Mannheim error channel, errors are limited to weight one. We investigate the channel capacity of this channel and discuss its relation to the McEliece system. The proposed codes are based on a simple product code construction and have a low complexity decoding algorithm. For the one Mannheim error channel, these codes achieve a higher error correction capability than maximum distance separable codes with bounded minimum distance decoding. This improves the work factor regarding decoding attacks based on information-set decoding.

Generalized Concatenated Codes over Gaussian and Eisenstein Integers for Code-Based Cryptography
(2021)

The code-based McEliece and Niederreiter cryptosystems are promising candidates for post-quantum public-key encryption. Recently, q-ary concatenated codes over Gaussian integers were proposed for the McEliece cryptosystem together with the one-Mannheim error channel, where the error values are limited to Mannheim weight one. Due to the limited error values, the codes over Gaussian integers achieve a higher error correction capability than maximum distance separable (MDS) codes with bounded minimum distance decoding. This higher error correction capability improves the work factor regarding decoding attacks based on information-set decoding. The codes also enable a low complexity decoding algorithm for decoding beyond the guaranteed error correction capability. In this work, we extend this coding scheme to codes over Eisenstein integers. These codes have advantages for the Niederreiter system. Additionally, we propose an improved code construction based on generalized concatenated codes. These codes extent the rate region where the work factor is beneficial compared to MDS codes. Moreover, generalized concatenated codes are more robust against structural attacks than ordinary concatenated codes.

In this paper, a novel measurement model based on spherical double Fourier series (DFS) for estimating the 3D shape of a target concurrently with its kinematic state is introduced. Here, the shape is represented as a star-convex radial function, decomposed as spherical DFS. In comparison to ordinary DFS, spherical DFS do not suffer from ambiguities at the poles. Details will be given in the paper. The shape representation is integrated into a Bayesian state estimator framework via a measurement equation. As range sensors only generate measurements from the target side facing the sensor, the shape representation is modified to enable application of shape symmetries during the estimation process. The model is analyzed in simulations and compared to a shape estimation procedure using spherical harmonics. Finally, shape estimation using spherical and ordinary DFS is compared to analyze the effect of the pole problem in extended object tracking (EOT) scenarios.

A nonlinear mathematical model for the dynamics of permanent magnet synchronous machines with interior magnets is discussed. The model of the current dynamics captures saturation and dependency on the rotor angle. Based on the model, a flatness-based field-oriented closed-loop controller and a feed-forward compensation of torque ripples are derived. Effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated by simulation results.

This paper proposes a novel transmission scheme for generalized multistream spatial modulation. This new approach uses one Mannheim error correcting codes over Gaussian or Eisenstein integers as multidimensional signal constellations. These codes enable a suboptimal decoding strategy with near maximum likelihood performance for transmission over the additive white Gaussian noise channel. In this contribution, this decoding algorithm is generalized to the detection for generalized multistream spatial modulation. The proposed method can outperform conventional generalized multistream spatial modulation with respect to decoding performance, detection complexity, and spectral efficiency.

Soft-input decoding of concatenated codes based on the Plotkin construction and BCH component codes
(2020)

Low latency communication requires soft-input decoding of binary block codes with small to medium block lengths.
In this work, we consider generalized multiple concatenated (GMC) codes based on the Plotkin construction. These codes are similar to Reed-Muller (RM) codes. In contrast to RM codes, BCH codes are employed as component codes. This leads to improved code parameters. Moreover, a decoding algorithm is proposed that exploits the recursive structure of the concatenation. This algorithm enables efficient soft-input decoding of binary block codes with small to medium lengths. The proposed codes and their decoding achieve significant performance gains compared with RM codes and recursive GMC decoding.

The reliability of flash memories suffers from various error causes. Program/erase cycles, read disturb, and cell to cell interference impact the threshold voltages and cause bit errors during the read process. Hence, error correction is required to ensure reliable data storage. In this work, we investigate the bit-labeling of triple level cell (TLC) memories. This labeling determines the page capacities and the latency of the read process. The page capacity defines the redundancy that is required for error correction coding. Typically, Gray codes are used to encode the cell state such that the codes of adjacent states differ in a single digit. These Gray codes minimize the latency for random access reads but cannot balance the page capacities. Based on measured voltage distributions, we investigate the page capacities and propose a labeling that provides a better rate balancing than Gray labeling.

Side Channel Attack Resistance of the Elliptic Curve Point Multiplication using Eisenstein Integers
(2020)

Asymmetric cryptography empowers secure key exchange and digital signatures for message authentication. Nevertheless, consumer electronics and embedded systems often rely on symmetric cryptosystems because asymmetric cryptosystems are computationally intensive. Besides, implementations of cryptosystems are prone to side-channel attacks (SCA). Consequently, the secure and efficient implementation of asymmetric cryptography on resource-constrained systems is demanding. In this work, elliptic curve cryptography is considered. A new concept for an SCA resistant calculation of the elliptic curve point multiplication over Eisenstein integers is presented and an efficient arithmetic over Eisenstein integers is proposed. Representing the key by Eisenstein integer expansions is beneficial to reduce the computational complexity and the memory requirements of an SCA protected implementation.

In this article, we give the construction of new four-dimensional signal constellations in the Euclidean space, which represent a certain combination of binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK) and M-ary amplitude-phase-shift keying (MAPSK). Description of such signals and the formulas for calculating the minimum squared Euclidean distance are presented. We have developed an analytic building method for even and odd values of M. Hence, no computer search and no heuristic methods are required. The new optimized BFSK-MAPSK (M = 5,6,···,16) signal constructions are built for the values of modulation indexes h =0.1,0.15,···,0.5 and their parameters are given. The results of computer simulations are also provided. Based on the obtained results we can conclude, that BFSK-MAPSK systems outperform similar four-dimensional systems both in terms of minimum squared Euclidean distance and simulated symbol error rate.

This work presents a new concept to implement the elliptic curve point multiplication (PM). This computation is based on a new modular arithmetic over Gaussian integer fields. Gaussian integers are a subset of the complex numbers such that the real and imaginary parts are integers. Since Gaussian integer fields are isomorphic to prime fields, this arithmetic is suitable for many elliptic curves. Representing the key by a Gaussian integer expansion is beneficial to reduce the computational complexity and the memory requirements of secure hardware implementations, which are robust against attacks. Furthermore, an area-efficient coprocessor design is proposed with an arithmetic unit that enables Montgomery modular arithmetic over Gaussian integers. The proposed architecture and the new arithmetic provide high flexibility, i.e., binary and non-binary key expansions as well as protected and unprotected PM calculations are supported. The proposed coprocessor is a competitive solution for a compact ECC processor suitable for applications in small embedded systems.

Modeling a suitable birth density is a challenge when using Bernoulli filters such as the Labeled Multi-Bernoulli (LMB) filter. The birth density of newborn targets is unknown in most applications, but must be given as a prior to the filter. Usually the birth density stays unchanged or is designed based on the measurements from previous time steps.
In this paper, we assume that the true initial state of new objects is normally distributed. The expected value and covariance of the underlying density are unknown parameters. Using the estimated multi-object state of the LMB and the Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) recursion, these parameters are recursively estimated and adapted after a target is detected.
The main contribution of this paper is an algorithm to estimate the parameters of the birth density and its integration into the LMB framework. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the detection driven adaptive birth density in two scenarios. The approach can also be applied to filters that are able to estimate trajectories.