## Institut für Systemdynamik - ISD

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In this paper, the problem of controlling the dissolved oxygen level (DO) during an aerobic fermentation is considered. The proposed approach deals with three major difficulties in respect to the nonlinear dynamics of the DO, the poor accuracy of the empirical models for the oxygen consumption rate and the fact that only sampled measurements are available on-line. A nonlinear integral high-gain control law including a continuous-discrete time observer is designed to keep the DO in the neighborhood of a set point value without any knowledge on the dissolved oxygen consumption rate. The local stability of the control algorithm is proved using Lyapunov tools. The performance of the control scheme is first analyzed in simulation and then experimentally evaluated during a successfull fermentation of the bacteria over a period of three days. Pseudomonas putida mt-2

This paper describes an early lumping approach for generating a mathematical model of the heating process of a moving dual-layer substrate. The heat is supplied by convection and nonlinearly distributed over the whole considered spatial extend of the substrate. Using CFD simulations as a reference, two different modelling approaches have been investigated in order to achieve the most suitable model type. It is shown that due to the possibility of using the transition matrix for time discretization, an equivalent circuit model achieves superior results when compared to the Crank-Nicolson method. In order to maintain a constant sampling time for the in-visioned-control strategies, the effect of variable speed is transformed into a system description, where the state vector has constant length but a variable number of non-zero entries. The handling of the variable transport speed during the heating process is considered as the main contribution of this work. The result is a model, suitable for being used in future control strategies.

This paper focuses on the multivariable control of a drawing tower process. The nature of the process together with the differences in measurement noise levels that affect the variables to be controlled motivated the development of a new MPC algorithm. An extension of a multivariable predictive control algorithm with separated prediction horizons is proposed. The obtained experimental results show the usefulness of the proposed algorithm..

Comparison and Identifiability Analysis of Friction Models for the Dither Motion of a Solenoid
(2018)

In this paper, the mechanical subsystem of a proportional solenoid excited by a dither signal is considered. The objective is to find a suitable friction model that reflects the characteristic mechanical properties of the dynamic system. Several different friction models from the literature are compared. The friction models are evaluated with respect to their accuracy as well as their practical identifiability, the latter being quantified based on the Fisher information matrix.

A constructive nonlinear observer design for self-sensing of digital (ON/OFF) single coil electromagnetic actuators is studied. Self-sensing in this context means that solely the available energizing signals, i.e., coil current and driving voltage are used to estimate the position and velocity trajectories of the moving plunger. A nonlinear sliding mode observer is considered, where the stability of the reduced error dynamics is analyzed by the equivalent control method. No simplifications are made regarding magnetic saturation and eddy currents in the underlying dynamical model. The observer gains are constructed by taking into account some generic properties of the systems nonlinearities. Two possible choices of the observer gains are discussed. Furthermore, an observer-based tracking control scheme to achieve sensorless soft landing is considered and its closed-loop stability is studied. Experimental results for observer-based soft landing of a fast-switching solenoid valve under dry conditions are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the approach.

A constructive method for the design of nonlinear observers is discussed. To formulate conditions for the construction of the observer gains, stability results for nonlinear singularly perturbed systems are utilised. The nonlinear observer is designed directly in the given coordinates, where the error dynamics between the plant and the observer becomes singularly perturbed by a high-gain part of the observer injection, and the information of the slow manifold is exploited to construct the observer gains of the reduced-order dynamics. This is in contrast to typical high-gain observer approaches, where the observer gains are chosen such that the nonlinearities are dominated by a linear system. It will be demonstrated that the considered approach is particularly suited for self-sensing electromechanical systems. Two variants of the proposed observer design are illustrated for a nonlinear electromagnetic actuator, where the mechanical quantities, i.e. the position and the velocity, are not measured

Autonomous moving systems require very detailed information about their environment and potential colliding objects. Thus, the systems are equipped with high resolution sensors. These sensors have the property to generate more than one detection per object per time step. This results in an additional complexity for the target tracking algorithm, since standard tracking filters assume that an object generates at most one detection per object. This requires new methods for data association and system state filtering.
As new data association methods, in this thesis two different extensions of the Joint Integrated Probabilistic Data Association (JIPDA) filter to assign more than one detection to tracks are proposed.
The first method that is introduced, is a generalization of the JIPDA to assign a variable number of measurements to each track based on some predefined statistical models, which will be called Multi Detection - Joint Integrated Probabilistic Data Association (MD-JIPDA).
Since this scheme suffers from exponential increase of association hypotheses, also a new approximation scheme is presented. The second method is an extension for the special case, when the number and locations of measurements are a priori known. In preparation of this method, a new notation and computation scheme for the standard Joint Integrated Data Association is outlined, which also enables the derivation of a new fast approximation scheme called balanced permanent-JIPDA.
For state filtering, also two different concepts are applied: the Random Matrix Framework and the Measurement Generating Points. For the Random Matrix framework, first an alternative prediction method is proposed to account for kinematic state changes in the extension state prediction as well. Secondly, various update methods are investigated to account for the polar to Cartesian noise transformation problem. The filtering concepts are connected with the new MD-JIPDA and their characteristics analyzed with various Monte Carlo simulations.
In case an object can be modeled by a finite number of fixed Measurement Generating Points (MGP), also a proposition to track these object via a JIPDA filter is made. In this context, a fast Track-to-Track fusion algorithm is proposed as well and compared against the MGP-JIPDA.
The proposed algorithms are evaluated in two applications where scanning is done using radar sensors only. The first application is a typical automotive scenario, where a passenger car is equipped with six radar sensors to cover its complete environment.
In this application, the location of the measurements on an object can be considered stationary and that is has a rectangular shape. Thus, the MGP based algorithms are applied here. The filters are evaluated by tracking especially vehicles on nearside lanes.
The second application covers the tracking of vessels on inland waters. Here, two different kind of Radar systems are applied, but for both sensors a uniform distribution of the measurements over the target's extent can be assumed. Further, the assumption that the targets have elliptical shape holds, and so the Random Matrix Framework in combination with the MD-JIPDA is evaluated.
Exemplary test scenarios also illustrate the performance of this tracking algorithm.

Digitale Signaturen zum Überprüfen der Integrität von Daten, beispielsweise von Software-Updates, gewinnen zunehmend an Bedeutung. Im Bereich der eingebetteten Systeme kommen derzeit wegen der geringen Komplexität noch überwiegend symmetri-sche Verschlüsselungsverfahren zur Berechnung eines Authentifizierungscodes zum Einsatz. Asym-metrische Kryptosysteme sind rechenaufwendiger, bieten aber mehr Sicherheit, weil der Schlüssel zur Authentifizierung nicht geheim gehalten werden muss. Asymmetrische Signaturverfahren werden typischerweise zweistufig berechnet. Der Schlüssel wird nicht direkt auf die Daten angewendet, sondern auf deren Hash-Wert, der mit Hilfe einer Hash-funktion zuvor berechnet wurde. Zum Einsatz dieser Verfahren in eingebetteten Systemen ist es erforder-lich, dass die Hashfunktion einen hinreichend gro-ßen Datendurchsatz ermöglicht. In diesem Beitrag wird eine effiziente Hardware-Implementierung der SHA-256 Hashfunktion vorgestellt.

Embodiments are generally related to the field of channel and source coding of data to be sent over a channel, such as a communication link or a data memory. Some specific embodiments are related to a method of encoding data for transmission over a channel, a corresponding decoding method, a coding device for performing one or both of these methods and a computer program comprising instructions to cause said coding device to perform one or both of said methods.

This work proposes a construction for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over finite Gaussian integer fields. Furthermore, a new channel model for codes over Gaussian integers is introduced and its channel capacity is derived. This channel can be considered as a first order approximation of the additive white Gaussian noise channel with hard decision detection where only errors to nearest neighbors in the signal constellation are considered. For this channel, the proposed LDPC codes can be decoded with a simple non-probabilistic iterative decoding algorithm similar to Gallager's decoding algorithm A.