## Institut für Systemdynamik - ISD

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- Conference Proceeding (10)
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#### Keywords

Flatness-based feed-forward control of solenoid actuators is considered. For precise motion planning and accurate steering of conventional solenoids, eddy currents cannot be neglected. The system of ordinary differential equations including eddy currents, that describes the nonlinear dynamics of such actuators, is not differentially flat. Thus, a distributed parameter approach based on a diffusion equation is considered, that enables the parametrization of the eddy current by the armature position and its time derivatives. In order to design the feedforward control, the distributed parameter model of the eddy current subsystem is combined with a typical nonlinear lumped parameter model for the electrical and mechanical subsystems of the solenoid. The control design and its application are illustrated by numerical and practical results for an industrial solenoid actuator.

Extracting suitable features from acquired data to accurately depict the current health state of a system is crucial in data driven condition monitoring and prediction. Usually, analogue sensor data is sampled at rates far exceeding the Nyquist-rate containing substantial amounts of redundancies and noise, imposing high computational loads due to the subsequent and necessary feature processing chain (generation, dimensionality reduction, rating and selection). To overcome these problems, Compressed Sensing can be used to sample directly to a compressed space, provided the signal at hand and the employed compression/measurement system meet certain criteria. Theory states, that during this compression step enough information is conserved, such that a reconstruction of the original signal is possible with high probability. The proposed approach however does not rely on reconstructed data for condition monitoring purposes, but uses directly the compressed signal representation as feature vector. It is hence assumed that enough information is conveyed by the compression for condition monitoring purposes. To fuse the compressed coefficients into one health index that can be used as input for remaining useful life prediction algorithms and is limited to a reasonable range between 1 and 0, a logistic regression approach is used. Run-to-failure data of three translational electromagnetic actuators is used to demonstrate the health index generation procedure. A comparison to the time domain ground truth signals obtained from Nyquist sampled coil current measurements shows reasonable agreement. I.e. underlying wear-out phenomena can be reproduced by the proposed approach enabling further investigation of the application of prognostic methods.

This paper presents a new likelihood-based partitioning method of the measurement set for the extended object probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter framework. Recent work has mostly relied on heuristic partitioning methods that cluster the measurement data based on a distance measure between the single measurements. This can lead to poor filter performance if the tracked extended objects are closely spaced. The proposed method called Stochastic Partitioning (StP) is based on sampling methods and was inspired by a former work of Granström et. al. In this work, the StP method is applied to a Gaussian inverse Wishart (GIW) PHD filter and compared to a second filter implementation that uses the heuristic Distance Partitioning (DP) method. The performance is evaluated in Monte Carlo simulations in a scenario where two objects approach each other. It is shown that the sampling based StP method leads to an improved filter performance compared to DP.

The introduction of multi level cell (MLC) and triple level cell (TLC) technologies reduced the reliability of flash memories significantly compared with single level cell (SLC) flash. The reliability of the flash memory suffers from various errors causes. Program/erase cycles, read disturb, and cell to cell interference impact the threshold voltages. With pre-defined fixed read thresholds a voltage shift increases the bit error rate (BER). This work proposes a read threshold calibration method that aims on minimizing the BER by adapting the read voltages. The adaptation of the read thresholds is based on the number of errors observed in the codeword protecting a small amount of meta-data. Simulations based on flash measurements demonstrate that this method can significantly reduce the BER of TLC memories.

The Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) algorithm is an important dictionary-based data compression approach that is used in many communication and storage systems. The parallel dictionary LZW (PDLZW) algorithm speeds up the LZW encoding by using multiple dictionaries. The PDLZW algorithm applies different dictionaries to store strings of different lengths, where each dictionary stores only strings of the same length. This simplifies the parallel search in the dictionaries for hardware implementations. The compression gain of the PDLZW depends on the partitioning of the address space, i.e. on the sizes of the parallel dictionaries. However, there is no universal partitioning that is optimal for all data sources. This work proposes an address space partitioning technique that optimizes the compression rate of the PDLZW using a Markov model for the data. Numerical results for address spaces with 512, 1024, and 2048 entries demonstrate that the proposed partitioning improves the performance of the PDLZW compared with the original proposal.

This work proposes a suboptimal detection algorithm for generalized multistream spatial modulation. Many suboptimal detection algorithms for spatial modulation use two-stage detection schemes where the set of active antennas is detected in the first stage and the transmitted symbols in the second stage. For multistream spatial modulation with large signal constellations the second detection step typically dominates the detection complexity. With the proposed detection scheme, the modified Gaussian approximation method is used for detecting the antenna pattern. In order to reduce the complexity for detecting the signal points, we propose a combined equalization and list decoding approach. Simulation results demonstrate that the new algorithm achieves near-maximum-likelihood performance with small list sizes. It significantly reduces the complexity when compared with conventional two-stage detection schemes.

This work introduces new signal constellations based on Eisenstein integers, i.e., the hexagonal lattice. These sets of Eisenstein integers have a cardinality which is an integer power of three. They are proposed as signal constellations for representation in the equivalent complex baseband model, especially for applications like physical-layer network coding or MIMO transmission where the constellation is required to be a subset of a lattice. It is shown that these constellations form additive groups where the addition over the complex plane corresponds to the addition with carry over ternary Galois fields. A ternary set partitioning is derived that enables multilevel coding based on ternary error-correcting codes. In the subsets, this partitioning achieves a gain of 4.77 dB, which results from an increased minimum squared Euclidean distance of the signal points. Furthermore, the constellation-constrained capacities over the AWGN channel and the related level capacities in case of ternary multilevel coding are investigated. Simulation results for multilevel coding based on ternary LDPC codes are presented which show that a performance close to the constellation-constrained capacities can be achieved.

The computational complexity of the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) detector for spatial modulation increases rapidly as more transmit antennas or larger modulation orders are employed. Hence, ML detection may be infeasible for higher bit rates. This work proposes an improved suboptimal detection algorithm based on the Gaussian approximation method. It is demonstrated that the new method is closely related to the previously published signal vector based detection and the modified maximum ratio combiner, but can improve the detection performance compared to these methods. Furthermore, the performance of different signal constellations with suboptimal detection is investigated. Simulation results indicate that the performance loss compared to ML detection depends heavily on the signal constellation, where the recently proposed Eisenstein integer constellations are beneficial compared to classical QAM or PSK constellations.

Error correction coding (ECC) for optical communication and persistent storage systems require high rate codes that enable high data throughput and low residual errors. Recently, different concatenated coding schemes were proposed that are based on binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes that have low error correcting capabilities. Commonly, hardware implementations for BCH decoding are based on the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm (BMA). However, for single, double, and triple error correcting BCH codes, Peterson's algorithm can be more efficient than the BMA. The known hardware architectures of Peterson's algorithm require Galois field inversion. This inversion dominates the hardware complexity and limits the decoding speed. This work proposes an inversion-less version of Peterson's algorithm. Moreover, a decoding architecture is presented that is faster than decoders that employ inversion or the fully parallel BMA at a comparable circuit size.

It is well known that signal constellations which are based on a hexagonal grid, so-called Eisenstein constellations, exhibit a performance gain over conventional QAM ones. This benefit is realized by a packing and shaping gain of the Eisenstein (hexagonal) integers in comparison to the Gaussian (complex) integers. Such constellations are especially relevant in transmission schemes that utilize lattice structures, e.g., in MIMO communications. However, for coded modulation, the straightforward approach is to combine Eisenstein constellations with ternary channel codes. In this paper, a multilevel-coding approach is proposed where encoding and multistage decoding can directly be performed with state-of-the-art binary channel codes. An associated mapping and a binary set partitioning are derived. The performance of the proposed approach is contrasted to classical multilevel coding over QAM constellations. To this end, both the single-user AWGN scenario and the (multiuser) MIMO broadcast scenario using lattice-reduction-aided preequalization are considered. Results obtained from numerical simulations with LDPC codes complement the theoretical aspects.