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Knot placement for curve approximation is a well known and yet open problem in geometric modeling. Selecting knot values that yield good approximations is a challenging task, based largely on heuristics and user experience. More advanced approaches range from parametric averaging to genetic algorithms.
In this paper, we propose to use Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to determine suitable knot vectors for B-spline curve approximation. The SVMs are trained to identify locations in a sequential point cloud where knot placement will improve the approximation error. After the training phase, the SVM can assign, to each point set location, a so-called score. This score is based on geometric and differential geometric features of points. It measures the quality of each location to be used as knots in the subsequent approximation. From these scores, the final knot vector can be constructed exploring the topography of the score-vector without the need for iteration or optimization in the approximation process. Knot vectors computed with our approach outperform state of the art methods and yield tighter approximations.

In the reverse engineering process one has to classify parts of point clouds with the correct type of geometric primitive. Features based on different geometric properties like point relations, normals, and curvature information can be used, to train classifiers like Support Vector Machines (SVM). These geometric features are estimated in the local neighborhood of a point of the point cloud. The multitude of different features makes an in-depth comparison necessary. In this work we evaluate 23 features for the classification of geometric primitives in point clouds. Their performance is evaluated on SVMs when used to classify geometric primitives in simulated and real laser scanned point clouds. We also introduce a normalization of point cloud density to improve classification generalization.

Deep 3D
(2017)

Optical surface inspection: A novelty detection approach based on CNN-encoded texture features
(2018)

In inspection systems for textured surfaces, a reference texture is typically known before novel examples are inspected. Mostly, the reference is only available in a digital format. As a consequence, there is no dataset of defective examples available that could be used to train a classifier. We propose a texture model approach to novelty detection. The texture model uses features encoded by a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained on natural image data. The CNN activations represent the specific characteristics of the digital reference texture which are learned by a one-class classifier. We evaluate our novelty detector in a digital print inspection scenario. The inspection unit is based on a camera array and a flashing light illumination which allows for inline capturing of multichannel images at a high rate. In order to compare our results to manual inspection, we integrated our inspection unit into an industrial single-pass printing system.

In this paper we present a method using deep learning to compute parametrizations for B-spline curve approximation. Existing methods consider the computation of parametric values and a knot vector as separate problems. We propose to train interdependent deep neural networks to predict parametric values and knots. We show that it is possible to include B-spline curve approximation directly into the neural network architecture. The resulting parametrizations yield tight approximations and are able to outperform state-of-the-art methods.

Classification of point clouds by different types of geometric primitives is an essential part in the reconstruction process of CAD geometry. We use support vector machines (SVM) to label patches in point clouds with the class labels tori, ellipsoids, spheres, cones, cylinders or planes. For the classification features based on different geometric properties like point normals, angles, and principal curvatures are used. These geometric features are estimated in the local neighborhood of a point of the point cloud. Computing these geometric features for a random subset of the point cloud yields a feature distribution. Different features are combined for achieving best classification results. To minimize the time consuming training phase of SVMs, the geometric features are first evaluated using linear discriminant analysis (LDA).
LDA and SVM are machine learning approaches that require an initial training phase to allow for a subsequent automatic classification of a new data set. For the training phase point clouds are generated using a simulation of a laser scanning device. Additional noise based on an laser scanner error model is added to the point clouds. The resulting LDA and SVM classifiers are then used to classify geometric primitives in simulated and real laser scanned point clouds.
Compared to other approaches, where all known features are used for classification, we explicitly compare novel against known geometric features to prove their effectiveness.

We present a 3d-laser-scan simulation in virtual
reality for creating synthetic scans of CAD models. Consisting of
the virtual reality head-mounted display Oculus Rift and the
motion controller Razer Hydra our system can be used like
common hand-held 3d laser scanners. It supports scanning of
triangular meshes as well as b-spline tensor product surfaces
based on high performance ray-casting algorithms. While point
clouds of known scanning simulations are missing the man-made
structure, our approach overcomes this problem by imitating
real scanning scenarios. Calculation speed, interactivity and the
resulting realistic point clouds are the beneﬁts of this system.

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