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Investigation of Alloy‐Dependent Occurrence of Ferromagnetism in Carbon‐Expanded Austenitic Steel after Low‐Temperature Surface Hardening

  • Ferromagnetism is of increasing importance in the growing field of electromobility and data storage. In stable austenitic steels, the occurrence of ferromagnetism is not expected and would also interfere with many applications. However, ferromagnetism in austenitic stainless steels after low-temperature nitriding has already been shown in the past. Herein, the presence of ferromagnetism in austenitic steels is discovered after low-temperature carburization (Kolsterizing), which represents a novel and unique finding. A zone of expanded austenite is established on various austenitic stainless steels by low-temperature carburization and the respective ferromagnetism is investigated in relation to the alloy composition. The ferromagnetism occurring is determined by means of a commercial magnetoinductive sensor (Feritscope). Ferromagnetic domains are visualized by magnetic force microscopy and a ferrofluid. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a clear difference in the lattice expansion of the different alloys. Furthermore, a different appearance of the magnetizable microstructure regions (magnetic domain structure) is detected depending on the grain orientation determined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Strongly pronounced magnetic domains show no linear lattice defects, whereas in small magnetizable areas linear lattice defects are detected by electron channeling contrast imaging and EBSD.

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Author:Philipp Schuler, Ulrich Krupp, Paul Gümpel, Joachim Mayer, Alexander Schwedt, Anke Aretz
Parent Title (English):Steel research international
Place of publication:Weinheim
Document Type:Article
Year of Publication:2021
Release Date:2022/01/13
Tag:Austenitic stainless steels; Expanded austenite; Low-temperature carburization; Magnetizability; Stacking fault energy
Page Number:9
Article Number:2100272
Open Access?:Ja
Relevance:Peer reviewed Publikation in Master Journal List
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY-NC-ND - Namensnennung - Nicht kommerziell - Keine Bearbeitungen 4.0 International