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#### Keywords

- Correlation analysis (1)
- Disturbance rejection (1)
- Electromagnetic actuators (2)
- Electromagnetic devices (1)
- Extended linearisation (1)
- Fault diagnosis (1)
- Friction (1)
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An approach for an adaptive position-dependent friction estimation for linear electromagnetic actuators with altered characteristics is proposed in this paper. The objective is to obtain a friction model that can be used to describe different stages of aging of magnetic actuators. It is compared to a classical Stribeck friction model by means of model fit, sensitivity, and parameter correlation. The identifiability of the parameters in the friction model is of special interest since the model is supposed to be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. A method based on the Fisher information matrix is employed to analyze the quality of the model structure and the parameter estimates.

In this paper, utilisation of an Unscented Kalman Filter for concurrently performing disturbance estimation and wave filtering is investigated. Experimental results are provided that demonstrate very good performance subject to both tasks. For the filter, a dynamic model has been used which was optimised via correlation analysis in order to obtain a minimum set of relevant parameters. This model has also been validated by experiments deploying a small vessel. A simulation study is presented to evaluate the performance using known quantities. Experimental trials have been performed on the Rhine river. The results show that for instance flow direction and varying current velocities can continuously be estimated with decent precision, even while the boat is performing turning manoeuvres. Moreover, the filtering properties are very satisfactory. This makes the filter suitable for being used, for instance, in autonomous vessel applications or assistance systems.

In this paper, a gain-scheduled nonlinear control structure is proposed for a surface vessel, which takes advantage of extended linearisation techniques. Thereby, an accurate tracking of desired trajectories can be guaranteed that contributes to a safe and reliable water transport. The PI state feedback control is extended by a feedforward control based on an inverse system model. To achieve an accurate trajectory tracking, however, an observer-based disturbance compensation is necessary: external disturbances by cross currents or wind forces in lateral direction and wave-induced measurement disturbances are estimated by a nonlinear observer and used for a compensation. The efficiency and the achieved tracking performance are shown by simulation results using a validated model of the ship Korona at the HTWG Konstanz, Germany. Here, both tracking behaviour and rejection of disturbance forces in lateral direction are considered.

A lot of procedures for estimating the spool position in linear electromagnetic actuators using voltage and current measurements only, can be found in the literature. Subject to the accuracy of the estimated spool position some achieve better, some worse results. However, in almost every approach hysteresis has a huge impact on the estimation accuracy that can be achieved. Regardless whether these effects are caused by magnetic or mechanical hysteresis, they will limit the accuracy of the position estimate, if not taken into account. In this paper, a model is introduced which covers the hysteresis effects as well as other nonlinear ities occurring in estimated position-dependent parameters. A classical Preisach model is deployed first, which is then adjusted by using novel elementary preceding Relay-Operators. The resulting model for the estimated position-dependent parameters including the adjusted Preisach model can be easily applied to position estimation tasks. It is shown that the considered model distinctly improves the accuracy for the spool position estimate, while it is kept as simple as possible for real-time implementation reasons.

The method of signal injection is investigated for position estimation of proportional solenoid valves. A simple observer is proposed to estimate a position-dependent parameter, i.e. the eddy current resistance, from which the position is calculated analytically. Therefore, the relationship of position and impedance in the case of sinusoidal excitation is accurately described by consideration of classical electrodynamics. The observer approach is compared with a standard identification method, and evaluated by practical experiments on an off-the-shelf proportional solenoid valve.

Sliding-mode observation with iterative parameter adaption for fast-switching solenoid valves
(2016)

Control of the armature motion of fast-switching solenoid valves is highly desired to reduce noise emission and wear of material. For feedback control, information of the current position and velocity of the armature are necessary. In mass production applications, however, position sensors are unavailable due to cost and fabrication reasons. Thus, position estimation by measuring merely electrical quantities is a key enabler for advanced control, and, hence, for efficient and robust operation of digital valves in advanced hydraulic applications. The work presented here addresses the problem of state estimation, i.e., position and velocity of the armature, by sole use of electrical measurements. The considered devices typically exhibit nonlinear and very fast dynamics, which makes observer design a challenging task. In view of the presence of parameter uncertainty and possible modeling inaccuracy, the robustness properties of sliding mode observation techniques are deployed here. The focus is on error convergence in the presence of several sources for modeling uncertainty and inaccuracy. Furthermore, the cyclic operation of switching solenoids is exploited to iteratively correct a critical parameter by taking into account the norm of the observation error of past switching cycles of the process. A thorough discussion on real-world experimental results highlights the usefulness of the proposed state observation approach.