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Channel coding for flash memories

  • Flash memories are non-volatile memory devices. The rapid development of flash technologies leads to higher storage density, but also to higher error rates. This dissertation considers this reliability problem of flash memories and investigates suitable error correction codes, e.g. BCH-codes and concatenated codes. First, the flash cells, their functionality and error characteristics are explained. Next, the mathematics of the employed algebraic code are discussed. Subsequently, generalized concatenated codes (GCC) are presented. Compared to the commonly used BCH codes, concatenated codes promise higher code rates and lower implementation complexity. This complexity reduction is achieved by dividing a long code into smaller components, which require smaller Galois-Field sizes. The algebraic decoding algorithms enable analytical determination of the block error rate. Thus, it is possible to guarantee very low residual error rates for flash memories. Besides the complexity reduction, general concatenated codes can exploit soft information. This so-called soft decoding is not practicable for long BCH-codes. In this dissertation, two soft decoding methods for GCC are presented and analyzed. These methods are based on the Chase decoding and the stack algorithm. The last method explicitly uses the generalized concatenated code structure, where the component codes are nested subcodes. This property supports the complexity reduction. Moreover, the two-dimensional structure of GCC enables the correction of error patterns with statistical dependencies. One chapter of the thesis demonstrates how the concatenated codes can be used to correct two-dimensional cluster errors. Therefore, a two-dimensional interleaver is designed with the help of Gaussian integers. This design achieves the correction of cluster errors with the best possible radius. Large parts of this works are dedicated to the question, how the decoding algorithms can be implemented in hardware. These hardware architectures, their throughput and logic size are presented for long BCH-codes and generalized concatenated codes. The results show that generalized concatenated codes are suitable for error correction in flash memories, especially for three-dimensional NAND memory systems used in industrial applications, where low residual errors must be guaranteed.

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Author:Jens Spinner
Referee:Dietmar SaupeGND, Jürgen FreudenbergerORCiDGND
Advisor:Jürgen Freudenberger
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Year of Publication:2019
Granting Institution:Universität Konstanz
Date of final exam:2019/10/18
Release Date:2020/01/10
Tag:Flash Memories; Channel Coding; Generalized Concatenated Code
Page Number:XIII, 108 Seiten
Institutes:Institut für Systemdynamik - ISD
DDC functional group:004 Informatik
Open Access?:Ja
Relevance:Abgeschlossene Dissertation